Integrity in the World of Work

Integrity in the World of Work
In the world of work, the word integrity is not just a matter of honesty, ethical and moral issues, that people don’t lie or don’t do immoral things. Integrity is also related to performance, an achievement of good results achieved by always upholding honesty and other moral values. The word integrity comes from the root of the word “integrated”, which means various parts of our character and skills play an active role in us, which is seen from our decisions and actions (Lee, on Zambrut International Journal). To be able to produce good performance in the workplace, one must have in himself abilities such as honest, brave, empowered, build good relationships, good at organizing themselves, organized, and well planned.
Integrity must be able to contribute to the improvement of life, and in the context of the world of work means improved performance. That means integrity is not only negative, just not to lie, not cheat, or not do things that are immoral. Integrity must also have a positive nature, which is doing something to produce something, with a moral quality in it. Self-integrity must encourage the achievement of good results from oneself, whether in the form of good performance or the achievement of good things in life. So the negative and positive traits must go together. As someone tries not to lie, not cheat (self-control), he must also do something to show good results or achievements. The first thing, which is negative, an act of understanding and self-control, then the minimum stage of the realization of integrity, the maximum stage is justu when the positive nature appears, in the form of good actions that produce something with good quality. It is generally assumed that the minimum stage in the form of avoidance (restraint and self-control) to do something bad is the main thing in terms of integrity and mandatory nature, while the maximum stage, an act of producing something of quality, is an expectation or appeal. But in connection with the world of work, then the maximum stage is not just an appeal or hope, but a demand, a necessity.
Thus, there are various personal traits and certain abilities that must be combined with honesty and various other positive attitudes to be able to produce what is called integrity. All of that will lead to success at work. So regarding competence in their fields is also part of integrity. Without competence, it is difficult to show integrity itself, while competence itself will be difficult to manifest good performance without being accompanied by parts of character, which encourage it to be able to achieve good results and in good ways (compare Simon, 2007; 2011).
Talking about integrity in the workplace cannot be separated from talking about competencies possessed by someone to be able to produce good performance in the workplace. The two things support each other. People are said to have more integrity, he is increasingly concerned about his competence; and conversely, people increasingly have good competence he also pay attention to his integrity. People who have good competence but do not have integrity, then the ability (competency) is good it can not produce good performance or work. Vice versa, people who have good integrity, but do not have good competence, also cannot be expected to produce good performance.
Career success and integrity go hand in hand. Someone who has integrity can show that they make ethical choices in their work lives every day. These people often come out victorious in the true sense of career competition. Those who have subordinates need to be more active in inspiring their subordinates. They actively promote integrity through their personal attitudes and actions, trust and commitment to the organization’s core values (Gauss, 2000). More clearly this was stated by Simons (2002), that integrity is a visible pattern in which there are similarities between words and works. Or in other words, the fact that a leader can be seen clearly when he does what he says. An important provision in terms of integrity is that in reality a leader keeps his promises, and shows the values that he always upholds.
Broadly speaking, knowledge is divided into two types namely Tacit Knowledge (implicit knowledge) and Explicit Knowledge (explicit knowledge), which can be described as follows: Knowledge is knowledge that is owned by someone and is very difficult to formalize, difficult to communicate or share with others . The understanding inherent in the individual’s knowledge is still subjective. knowledge possessed by these individuals can still be categorized as intuition and conjecture. This tactical knowledge is rooted in one’s actions and experiences, including idealism, values and emotions. Tacit knowledge is knowledge that is very personal and also very difficult to be formed. In addition, tacit knowledge is difficult to communicate or share with others.

Understanding and Evaluating Integrity

Understanding and Evaluating Integrity
Understanding Integrity It is said that the ancient Chinese people felt insecure with the North barbarians, they often faced attacks from the barbarians. So there is a kind of animosity between them. The ancient Chinese people wanted a sense of peace with the barbarians, so they built a big wall that was quite high. With that they believe that no one can climb the pot, the wall is so thick that it is not easy to destroy. It happened that in the hundred years since the wall was built there had been at least three enemy attacks experienced by China, but no one had managed to get through that wall because it was tall, thick, and very strong. One time, the enemy bribed the border gate guard. What happened then was that the enemy managed to enter and carry out an attack. The ancient Chinese succeeded in building a strong and reliable stone wall but failed to build integrity in the next generation. If the guardian of the gate at the wall had high integrity, he would not accept bribes, which not only destroyed him but also others.
Integrity is something that is directly related to individuals, not to groups or organizations. Ownership of integrity can only be said to individuals, not to family, parents or relatives. A father’s integrity does not necessarily become the integrity of his child. In this story, the neatness of group work, successfully building a good and strong wall, does not necessarily guarantee that the individuals in it also automatically have strong self-resilience. The main reinforcement that must be done is individual self-strengthening, which strengthens each group member or the next generation, to have good and strong self-integrity.
References from the Zambrut International Journal, self-integrity can be interpreted as an endurance not to be tempted by various pressures to think about and prioritize one’s own interests and or benefits and ignore the interests and fate of many people, with the responsibility that is in his hands. Self-integrity is related to the attitude that always puts the responsibility, trust and loyalty to the promise. Integrity is related to the ability to hold and control oneself from various temptations that will destroy the dignity and dignity of one’s own self. People who have integrity are people who can be relied on, trusted, and emulated.
The word integrity has an ethical connotation, and according to Minkes, et al. (1999), ethical behavior is related to “ought” or “ought not”, not just “must” and “must not”. Therefore there are other measures that lie behind what is required by the law or other measures that focus more on profit considerations. So the problem of integrity cannot be limited to things that are visible or can be measured from the point of view of the points of law. Behavior that can be observed and considered according to rules or laws is not necessarily ethical.
Integrity is a concept that is usually used in formal and informal discussions about leadership and organizational theories, however it is not very clearly formulated and understood (Rieke & Guastello, 1995). For example, in existing literature, words such as integrity, honesty, and conscientiousness are often not distinguished, and tend to be used as terms that can be exchanged without further information (Becker, 1998).
Basic Study of Understanding Integrity is inherent in the tradition of moral relativism, in which understanding of behavior that is considered good can vary between people, culture, and age. Philosophically, such relativism can certainly survive, but at least in practice it becomes problematic. Adolf Hitler’s leadership shows an extreme example. Although many people would agree that he did not have integrity, members of that era were probably those who agreed that he had integrity. On that basis, current research supports the definition of integrity provided by Becker (1998: 157-158), which states “integrity is commitment in action to a morally justifiable set of principles and values.” In this definition moral justification from the point of view objective integrity based on universal truth rather than merely agreeing on a set of moral views and individual or group values (Becker, 1998).
An evaluation of integrity cannot be based solely on the benchmarks used by each individual or group or culture. There is a danger when an individual’s behavior is actually highly denounced by many people, there are still certain people or groups or cultures that consider it to be commendable. Moral relativism like this cannot be maintained. Something that is considered good must be able to be opened and stand the test of the assessment of the general public. It must be possible to find rational and common sense reasons for an attitude or behavior that is valued as good, which overcomes a limited range of views of certain individuals or cultures. And vice versa, it must be given a plausible reason why an action is considered not good from an ethical standpoint, and must not stop at reason because of mere habit. Concerning integrity is not only based on habits, but rather as a conscious and deliberate choice, with specific goals and objectives. When something is done often it will develop into a habit. But because every situation is unique, then the habit is not applied equally. There is always personal responsibility for each situation what actions should be chosen based on generally accepted ethical principles.
An evaluation of integrity cannot be based solely on visible attitudes or behaviors because it is not always that the actions that are shown by someone constitute a concrete appearance or form or expression of a moral attitude or basic moral choice. Although behaviors that appear outside are often expressions of what is in the mind or heart of a person, there can always be a gap (gap) between what is inside (the choice of moral attitude) with actions that are shown outside. Here the role of intention or motive from within is crucial. Integrity is mainly related to one’s intention or motives in doing something. Bad intentions or motives can be achieved or realized by the choice of actions that are generally valued or look good. People who seem to help others, distributing their money to people who are difficult / suffering, will easily be assessed as good people. Yet if it is explored deeper, it turns out that behind his actions he has intentions or motives that are not good, which wants to control many people, want to rule over other people.

General Definition of Perfect Competition Market

General Definition of Perfect Competition Market
This discussion will explain the definition of perfect competition, the characteristics of perfect competition and examples of perfect competition and the advantages and disadvantages of perfect competition. In general, the definition of a perfectly competitive market is a market where there is strength from the demand for supply that can move freely. Or it can also be interpreted that the perfect competition market is a market with a large number of sellers and buyers, so that no single seller or buyer can influence the price. Perfect competition is a market where sellers and buyers cannot influence prices, so prices in the market are really the result of agreement and interaction between supply and demand. According references from Zambrut International Journal, the demand formed reflects consumer desires, while supply reflects the desires of producers. In a perfectly competitive market, the seller and the buyer have absolutely no ability to influence market prices because there is already an inner bond between the seller and the buyer knowing the structure and information that is in the perfect competition market.
Examples of Perfect Competition Markets; The staple food market is rice that is linked between farmers as producers and traders as buyers. In the rice market there are a lot of (farmers) supply, each of them sells rice in a relatively small amount with a very simple form, so that each farmer cannot influence the price in the market that has been formed. If the farmer sells below the market price, he will lose, and vice versa if he sells above the market price, he will be left by the buyer.
The Characteristics of the Perfect Competition Market; Perfect competition markets have special characteristics, including the following: There are many buyers and sellers, meaning that each party, both buyers and sellers, cannot influence market prices. The number of traded goods is homogeneous, meaning that consumers assume that the goods traded have the same quality. Complete market information, meaning that the buyer and seller know each other about the quality, price, place and time of the goods being traded. Price is determined by the mechanism of demand and supply, meaning that the buyer is free to make the decision to buy or not the goods, so the seller also has the freedom to sell charcoal and services. Free from government interference, meaning that the government does not interfere in determining prices in the market. The emergence of its own strengths in the market, meaning that there are no outside forces, both the government and other parties that can influence the decisions taken by sellers and buyers.
Advantages of Perfect Competition Market. The following are the advantages of a perfectly competitive market: In a perfect competition market, there is no visible competition between the buyers. It is not possible for a seller to enter a price competition with the intention of seizing the market, because the market price is something that must be accepted by each producer. The goods offered by the seller will sell in any quantity without decreasing the price. It is impossible to move the shape of the goods to make a market because of the homogeneity of the goods. Information about the market has been known by business rivals and efforts to compete with other companies also do not produce anything, because the number of rivals is very unlimited. Consumers do not need to tense about bargaining the price of goods because the price can not be influenced by anyone.
Weaknesses of perfectly competitive markets; In addition to having some merits, the perfect competition market has the following weaknesses: Does not encourage innovation. In a perfectly competitive market, technology can be easily copied by other companies. Limiting consumer choices, because the goods produced by companies are one hundred percent the same, thus making consumers have limited choices to determine the goods to be consumed. Unequal / unequal distribution of income. Thus a Simple Article on the discussion of the Perfect Understanding Competition Market and its Characteristics. may be useful for all of us. That is all and thank you.

The Role of Agribusiness in Developing Agriculture

The Role of Agribusiness in Developing Agriculture
1. Background. Agribusiness is a system that discusses agricultural business both narrowly and broadly, both directly or indirectly related to agriculture. Agribusiness is essentially part of the economic system. This is based on all activities that involve the creation and distribution of farming facilities; production activities in farming units; storage, processing and distribution of farming commodities and various products made from the production process.
Broadly speaking, all farming activities in agribusiness are based on economics. It follows the nature of agribusiness as part of the economic system. However, agribusiness is not entirely discussed about economics. According information from Egypt Journals, Agribusiness is very much needed in the development of agriculture in Egypt, because the condition of agricultural land in Egypt is very potential, but in reality agriculture in Egypt is still lagging behind other countries’ agriculture whose potential for agricultural land is far below the quality of Egypt. It is therefore necessary to discuss how important agribusiness is in developing agriculture in general agribusiness as an economic system that can boost the progress of Egypt agriculture.
1. Definition of Agribusiness. Agribusiness is narrowly defined as a business in agriculture, but agribusiness is broadly defined as the overall production and distribution activities of agricultural production facilities, farming business activities, as well as storage, processing, distribution of agricultural business commodities, and other activities that make up these products. Agribusiness system is a system that consists of sub-systems that are interrelated with one another. In general, agribusiness can be viewed from two aspects, namely agribusiness as a system and agribusiness as a field of business or agricultural company (Firdaus, 2008).
2. Agribusiness As A System. Basically the system can be defined as a set of elements (subsystems) that are interconnected through various forms of interaction and work together to achieve a certain goal. According to (Sukirno, 1985) Characteristics or characteristics of a system are as follows: Consists of the elements / components / subsystems that form a single unit (totality) system. There is a purpose and interdependence between one subsystem with subsystems that are the other. Interaction between subsystems. It contains mechanisms, sometimes also referred to as transformations (in production systems for example converting inputs into outputs). There is an environment that results in system dynamics (weather, economic environment, socio-cultural, legal and political, technological development, competition, other external forces).
Input forces subsystems for cultivation at the level of soybean farming, for example producers or suppliers of goods in the form of fertilizers, pesticides, soybean seeds, agricultural equipment and machinery, producers or service providers such as trade, credit, labor (HR) and so on. b. Biological cultivation or production subsystem at the farm level as the main subsystem, where all inputs (land, capital and labor) are mixed in a production process to produce soybean seeds as the main product and its associated products such as leaves, roots and stems which, if dried, can be used for fuel or fresh can be used as fodder. c. Post-harvest, agro-processing or agro-industry subsystems, where:
3. Agribusiness as a Business Sector
Furthermore, agribusiness can also be seen as a business field (company). Agribusiness company is an institution or business organization that works in one of the subsystems, several subsystems or totally integrated in the agribusiness system that is managed with good managerial skills for profit, material and moral. (Soekartawi, 1999).
1) Free Market System. The free market system is often called the perfect competition market. In this system the community is given full opportunity and freedom to determine the economic activities they want to do and the government does not interfere at all and does not try to influence the economic activities carried out by the community.
According to (Sastraatmadja, 1984) the characteristics of a free market system (perfect competition market): a. The number of companies is large so that each company has a relatively small role and cannot determine prices. Each company follows the market price (Price Teker), and the profit gained is accounting profit (normal profit). b. The product is homogeneous (homogenous product) and has relatively no specific differences. So each relative seller has no market power to influence the buyer. c. Free to enter or exit the market (Free Entry and Free Exit). This characteristic relates to the normal profits that each seller has in the perfectly competitive market. If within a period of time there is a lot of demand (Boom) there will be economic benefits, and this will stimulate new companies to enter the market. d. Consumers and producers have perfect information about the price of goods and the cost of production factors.
2) Economic Planning System. The economic planning system (socialism) was practiced in Communist countries, such as the Soviet Union (now Russia) and Eastern Europe. This system requires the government to fully determine the pattern of economic activities to be carried out. This system originated from the belief that economic activities regulated by market mechanisms will lead to unemployment and injustice. This system believes that the government will be able to carry out its functions more efficiently than a system that can be run in a free market system. To ensure the smooth running of the business and achieve the targets set in the planning made, capital tools are controlled and owned by the government (Sastraatmadja, 1984).
3) Mixed Economic System. A mixed economic system is an economic system that is controlled and overseen by the government, but the community still has considerable freedom to determine the economic activities they wish to carry out. Market mechanism still plays an important role in determining the pattern of economic activities carried out by the community (Sastraatmadja, 1984).
The main purpose of government intervention is to avoid the unfavorable consequences of a free market economic system. For example, in a free market system, the weak economic group is increasingly oppressed and the stronger economic group will be stronger. Government intervention allows efforts to avoid this.

Problems in Information and Communication Technology

Problems in Information and Communication Technology
Data is one of the main things studied in the problem of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Data is something that has no meaning for the recipient and still requires a processing. Data can refer to a situation, picture, sound, letters, numbers, mathematics, language or other symbols. Data is the raw material of information.
Thus it can be explained again that the data are facts, estimates, or opinions that do not yet have meaning that can be utilized. There are several methods that can be used for data collection (indicator from Myanmar Journals Research Science, namely:
1. Direct observation. In this method we make direct observations of the object that we are studying. There is also an advantage in this method is the data collected is more complex, thorough, and careful. While this method has drawbacks, namely: The area for obtaining data is not extensive. In collecting data the funds used are expensive. Data collection cannot be done if there are many things that must be investigated.
2. Interview. In this interview method we conduct interviews with the object / person concerned about the things we observe. The advantages of this method are: The data collected is quite thorough. Data collection areas can be extensive. Can be represented by others. Weaknesses in this method are: Costs used are expensive. If represented, they will not be able to know the research objectives.
3. Estimates. In this case the correspondent is asked to provide the necessary information. Therefore, it is possible that the quality of the correspondent of the data can be neglected and that its accuracy is difficult to justify. While this estimation method also has advantages, namely: The cost used is relatively cheap. Data collection areas can be extensive.
4. Question List. In this question list method, we distribute the list of questions or questionnaires to be filled out by respondents, then after completing it is collected again. The advantages in this method are: the cost used is relatively cheap. Data collected faster. While the shortcomings in this method are sometimes the respondent does not return a list of questions.
Data describes a representation of facts that are arranged in a structured manner, in other words that “Generally, data represents a structured codification of single primary entities, as well as of transactions involving two or more primary entities”. (Vercellis, 2009: 6). In addition to the description of a fact, the data can also represent an object as stated by Henry and Munir (2006: 1) that “Data is a value that represents a description of an object or event (event)”
Data processing. According to George Therry, data processing is a series of operations on information planned to achieve the desired goals or results. Handling information or data processing consists of six elements, namely: 1. Sensing / sensing. Conducting observations of objects that we will examine and about what is in our observations. 2. Collection / Complications; Conduct data collection from observations that we have done. In order for our collection to be systematic, we must first classify existing data. 3. Processing / Computing; Carry out the processing of data that we have collected. 4. Presentation; This information is presented to the person who will make the decision. In this presentation the emphasis is on simplicity so as not to confuse the person making the decision. 5. Transmission Delivery; This is done if people need information far away. 6. Information Handling; Information needs to be stored to restore the decision because in returning the decision is not only done in the present, but also past and future.
Information is data that has been processed into a form that is meaningful to the recipient and useful in making decisions both now and in the future. Existing data is packaged and processed so that it becomes useful information. Here are definitions of information based on various sources. Information is a result of processing data into something meaningful for those who receive it, as stated by Vercellis (2009: 7) “Information is the outcome of extraction and processing activities carried out on data, and it appears meaningful for those who receive it in a specific domain. “Besides being the result of data processing, information also describes an event, as stated by Wawan and Munir (2006: 1) that” Information is the result of data processing in a form that describes a real event (event) (fact) with more useful and more meaningful. ”
Thus information can be explained again as data that has been processed into a form that is meaningful to the recipient and useful in making decisions both now and in the future. To produce precise and accurate information, data processing needs to be done first. Information generated by a computer can be viewed through a monitor or printed on paper through a printer. Information in processing this data can be in the form of writing, pictures, graphics, sounds, numbers and symbols.
Good and complete information requirements are the availability of information, language that is easily understood, relevant, contains useful information, information is presented on time or updated, reliability (can be used as a reference), accurate (true or not composed), and consistent (does not change).
Information has several characteristics, namely: 1. True or false. This can relate to reality or not. If the recipient of the wrong information believes, the consequences are the same as true. 2. New. Information obtained is new and fresh for the recipient. Recipients of information often feel bored if the information provided is always the same as the past and there is no change at all. 3. Addition. Information can be a correction of previous false or false information. 4. Affirmation. Information can reinforce existing information. This is still useful because it increases the recipient’s perception of the truth of the information.
Information can be said to be good if it has the following characteristics: 1. Information must be pertinent. Information must be related. Information statements must relate to matters and issues that are important to the recipient of the information (the person who needs the information). 2. Information must be accurate. Information must be free from mistakes and not have a bias or be misleading. The information produced must reflect its purpose. The accuracy of information often depends on the situation. 3. Information must be timely. Information must be available when needed. Information that comes to the recipient must not be too late. Information that is outdated will no longer have value because information is the basis in decision making. 4. Relevant. This information has benefits for the wearer. The relevance of information for each person must be different from one another.
The process of producing information must go through stages carried out by computers as information technology. These stages consist of Input – Process – Output which is called the information processing cycle. That is, if the stage has reached the output then the output can be used as input again. Thus it can be said that the information generated can also be used as data again as input for further processing.

Factors That Affect Demand and Supply

Factors That Affect Demand and Supply
Demand and supply in economics, is a description of the relationships in the market, between potential buyers and sellers of an item. Demand is the number of items purchased or requested at a certain price and time. While the offer is a number of goods sold or offered at a certain price and time
The supply and demand model is used to determine the price and quantity sold in the market. This model is very important for conducting microeconomic analysis of the behavior of buyers and sellers, as well as their interactions in the market. It is also used as a starting point for various economic models and theories. This model estimates that in a competitive market, price will function as a counterweight between the quantity demanded by consumers and the quantity offered by producers, so that an economic balance is created between price and quantity. This model accommodates the possibility of factors that can change the balance, which will then be displayed in the form of a shift from demand or supply (Hardynin in Sri Lanka Journals Research).
Law of Demand and Supply. If all assumptions are ignored (ceteris paribus): If prices get cheaper then demand or buyers will increase and vice versa. If the price is lower / cheaper, the offer will be less and vice versa.
All happened because all wanted to find satisfaction (profit) as much as possible from the existing price. If the price is too high then the buyer might buy a little because the money he has is limited, but for the seller with a high price he will try to multiply the goods sold or produced so that the profits obtained are even greater. High prices can also cause consumers / buyers to look for other products as a substitute for expensive goods.
Law of demand. The law of demand is the law that explains the existence of a negative relationship between the price level and the quantity of goods demanded. If the price rises the amount of goods demanded slightly and if the price is low the quantity of goods demanded increases. Thus the law of the request reads:
“The lower the price level, the more the amount of goods available is requested, and conversely the more the price level rises the less the number of goods that are willing to be requested.” In the law of demand applies the ceteris paribus assumption. This means that the law of demand applies if the circumstances or factors other than the price do not change (are considered fixed).
Bidding law. That the higher the price, the more goods offered. Conversely the lower the price of the goods, the fewer items offered. This is called the law of supply. The law of supply shows the relationship between the amount of goods offered and the price level. Thus the sound of the bidding law reads:
“The higher the price, the more number of items that are willing to be offered. Conversely, the lower the price level, the less amount of goods that are willing to be offered. “The law of supply will apply if other factors that influence the supply do not change (ceteris paribus).
Demand and Supply have things that influence the occurrence and continuation of demand and demand, those that we will discuss are the Factors Affecting Demand and Supply. before discussing this let us know the demand and supply. Demand is the amount of certain goods or services demanded by consumers at certain price levels and in certain situations. Offer is the amount of goods or services to be sold (offered) at a certain price level and situation. Factors That Affect Demand and Supply include:
1. Factors that Affect Demand
Taste. with changing consumer tastes for a particular product or service, of course the number of requests for that product or service changes. If the goods or services are being liked a lot, then the demand for the goods or services will increase. The opposite situation will occur if the goods or services are not liked by consumers.
Revenue Change. If the people’s income increases, there will certainly be a change in demand patterns in the market. For example, salary increases for civil servants and private employees will certainly increase the income of civil servants and employees concerned. This increase can result in changes in demand for some commodities at certain price levels for basic necessities, education and recreation, and many more
Change in Population. Population growth is a very dominant factor in changing demand and supply. This phenomenon is easy to understand, considering that it is not possible for a human child born in this world to be left alone without care, food, clothing and shelter and education as befits a human being who has to live a normal life. So explain that the increasing number of residents will result in increased demand for goods or services
Expectations or Expectations. Consumer expectations or expectations are estimates that he sets later on the income he receives. If he estimates that his income level will increase, so the number of requests will tend to increase. Conversely, if he estimates that his income level will decrease, then the number of requests will tend to decrease.
Prices of other related goods, both substitute goods and complementary goods. With the increase in the price of substitute goods, the demand for a particular item will increase, and vice versa if the substitute item decreases, the demand for that item decreases.
2. Factors That Affect the Bid
Production Technology. The level of technological progress of the company determines the company’s production capability. In general, the higher the technology applied, the more efficient the company is. The emergence of new producers. The emergence of new producers in the market will increase the number of goods sold and offered. Prices of Production Sources. Rising prices of production sources will lead to ups and downs in production costs. This will affect the offer of a type of goods.
Manufacturer expectations or expectations. If producers estimate an increase in the price of goods or services, a decrease in the prices of production sources, also an increase in consumer income, then from the producer will further increase the amount of supply to consumers. Thus a simple article about the discussion of Factors Affecting Demand and Supply. I hope this article is helpful for all of us. That is all and thank you.

Differences and Relationships for Social, Cultural and Characteristic Change

Differences and Relationships for Social, Cultural and Characteristic Change
Changes that occur in society generally involve complex matters. Therefore Alvin L. Bertrand states that social change basically cannot be explained by and adheres to a single factor. According to Robin Williams, the opinion of monofactor’s dichotism is now obsolete, and modern sociology will not use one-sided interpretations which say that change is only caused by one factor.
So it is clear, that the changes that occur in the community are caused by the many factors that influence. Therefore changes that occur in society are said to be related to complex matters. Social and cultural changes have a very close relationship. A social change will certainly influence the occurrence of cultural change. Cultural change covers all parts, namely art, science, philosophical technology, and so forth. That part and culture cannot be separated from human social life in society. It is not easy to determine the dividing line between social change and cultural change.
According from Thomas in Kenyan Journals, there is no society without culture. Conversely, it is impossible for a culture to be incarnated in society. In other words, social and cultural change has one aspect in common, both of which have to do with an acceptance of new ways or an improvement on the way a society meets its needs. Although social and cultural changes have a close relationship, they also have differences. The difference between social and cultural change can be seen and its direction. Social change is a change in terms of social structure and relations, while cultural change is a change in terms of community culture. Social changes occur in terms of the distribution of age groups, levels of education, and birth rates of the population. Cultural change includes the discovery and dissemination of society, changes in the concept of moral values and morality, new art forms and gender equality.
Sometimes social and cultural changes overlap. For example, now society wants gender equality related to changes in a set of cultural norms and the social role functions of men and women. To overcome this overlap, we often use the term socio-cultural change to cover both changes.
Thus, a change is said to be a Socio-Cultural Change if it has the following characteristics. There is no community whose development has stopped because every society experiences changes sooner or later. Changes that occur in social institutions will be followed by changes in existing social institutions. Changes that take place quickly will usually result in temporary chaos because people will try to adapt themselves to the changes that occur. Change cannot be limited to the material or spiritual realm because the two are interrelated. That, at a glance the differences and relationships of social and cultural change and characteristics, may be useful.
Social institutions are formed from values, norms, customs, codes of conduct, and other cultural elements that live in society. Values and norms that have only been recognized, recognized and respected by the community will be obeyed in daily life. The process will continue to social values and norms and be absorbed by the community. The process of absorption is called internalization (internalization).
In general, the definition of an institution is a norm system to achieve certain goals which are considered important by the community. The norm system includes ideas, rules, procedures, activities and sanctions (reward and punishment system). The norm system is the result of a process that has gradually become an organized system that has proven its credibility and reliability. As religion is an institution because it is a system of ideas, beliefs, ways of worship, and codes of conduct that are believed by adherents because they can lead to the good of the world and the hereafter. After that, over time it will develop into a part of an institution. The process by which new social values and norms are passed into becoming one of the social institutions which in society is called the institutionalization process.
Social institutions have goals that meet basic human needs. Social institutions have several functions, among others, as follows. Guidelines for community members in behaving or behaving to deal with problems in society, especially regarding human needs. As a guardian of the integrity of the community, it becomes a guideline to establish a social control system for the behavior of community members. Conditions for the Formation of Social Institutions, According to Selo Soemardjan, institutions are something that must be upheld and as a binding rule in society as an institutional growth process that binds 3 conditions. The requirements for forming a social institution are as follows. The norm animates all members of the community. Accepted by most members of the community without meaningful questions. Norms must have sanctions that are binding on every member of the community