Development of Learning Media in Education

Development of Learning Media in Education
Pronunciation in the English Language Education Department is one of the most important basic courses in the development of oral, listening and speaking language skills. Without mastering adequate pronunciation it is impossible for someone to speak English well. Incorrect pronunciation can cause misunderstanding. To be understood by others, one must be able to pronounce English correctly and to be able to understand someone else’s English, one must be able to grasp and understand the pronunciation of others.
Learning outcomes are determined by many factors. According to the Association of Education Communication Technology, learning system components include the people (teachers and students), the content of the material (teaching materials), teaching methods and techniques, media and teaching settings (place and time) Chuzikyn in Turkey Journals Studied.
Pronunciation mastery includes the ability to understand English sound system or phonology and the ability to produce English sounds properly and correctly, which includes loose words, phrases, sentences and dialogues or English discourse. To be able to understand theory is needed, and to be able to produce it requires a lot of practice or practice. Because of this, the Pronunciation courses in the English Education Department contain both theory and practice with a proportion of two to eight. A student who has passed the Pronunciation course ideally has mastered the theory of English sound system and is able to pronounce English correctly, so that they will not make mistakes in saying English words, phrases or sentences. They should also have the skills to read the sound symbols (transcription) used in dictionaries so that if they find a new word that is not yet known, their words can be checked through the dictionary. But the reality is not always the case. On various occasions, even in the thesis examination, it is still often found students who say the wrong words, even words that are often used in daily communication and learning. Even worse, if they are asked to check into a dictionary, they are not able to read the sound symbols properly. This fact shows that Pronunciation learning has not been maximally successful which will adversely affect the mastery of English as a whole, especially in spoken languages. For this reason, it is necessary to make a serious effort so that this lecture can succeed optimally.
Students are the main components in determining learning outcomes, because they are the subjects of the learning activities. Student learning outcomes are largely determined by learning motivation, willingness to learn, activeness in the learning process and the ability to receive and process learning materials. The different characteristics of these students will affect different learning outcomes. Students with high learning motivation will strive to achieve the desired learning outcomes. For that learning must be able to cause student motivation. In addition to learning motivation, initial abilities also determine learning outcomes. Students with sufficient initial ability tend to be easier to accept and process teaching and training materials compared to students with low initial ability. The initial ability also influences other learning components, such as the determination of the syllabus, the level of difficulty of teaching materials, teaching techniques and variety of exercises. Diverse initial abilities of students tend to make it difficult for teachers to plan and manage teaching. Based on observations so far, good pronunciation learning outcomes can only be achieved by students who already have sufficient initial ability, while students with low initial ability show less satisfying results.
Teachers or lecturers also participate in determining the level of learning outcomes of their students. The role of the lecturer in Pronunciation learning is as a manager of learning activities, as a motivator, facilitator and model. The Pronunciation teacher must be able to design appropriate PBM activities, choose appropriate material, assist students in training, monitor student practice and learning progress, and must also be able to become an example or model of how to pronounce English properly and correctly. PBI lecturer workload that is too dense sometimes triggers less than the maximum effort and role of lecturers in the teaching and learning process.
Besides being determined by the learning actors, namely students and lecturers, the pronunciation learning outcomes are also determined by the learning content and the media used to convey the learning message. The learning content is determined by the curriculum that is reflected in the course description, while the media used is determined by many things, including the availability and quality of the media, the willingness and ability of lecturers to choose and use media, and the availability of supporting facilities and inscriptions. The pronunciation learning media in the English department has so far been in the form of modules written about ten years ago, which contain material with considerable training material. However, it is felt that this module is still inadequate, so pronunciation teachers still have to look for additional materials needed. In addition, lecturers also still have to work hard to become a model of how to say the exercises in it. This is felt to be quite heavy and tiring for the lecturer when teaching, and viewed from the side of students modeling this way is not sufficient, because examples of utterances can only be heard once or twice, so students will quickly forget. Students need a speech model that can be heard at any time needed, while lecturers need facilities that can ease their work. This problem will be overcome by the availability of appropriate learning media.
The media for teaching and learning Pronunciation using a computer actually has a lot to offer, for example the existence of an audio-visual dictionary. Materials and pronunciation exercises have also been offered through the internet. This condition is very conducive for lecturers and students, so they can find more learning resources, more varied and also more interesting. But unfortunately, not all lecturers and students are able to do this activity. In addition, time can also be a constraint because of the amount of material available, sometimes not limited, that has not been selected and arranged according to lecture needs. Efforts to select and arrange the materials that are available are still felt to be very necessary so that there is an appropriate pronunciation learning media available that can help lecturers and students in the teaching and learning of Pronunciation.
In general, this research aims to: a) develop a multimedia model to be utilized in pronunciation learning by applying development research steps, b) examine the attractiveness of the media for students, and c) examine the impact of the media on the teaching and learning process of pronunciation in English education department.
Nowadays computer technology used in language learning is better known as CALL (Computer assisted Language Learning). Some experts in language learning state that the use of computer-based multi media is very potential to create effective language learning, because of its usefulness to integrate various media such as audio and video with high quality and can be arranged by the learner. The use of computer-based multi media in language learning is very useful because in addition to being able to present material through text, images, films, sound and graphics, it also has hypermarkets. This facility provides various benefits for language learners, such as: 1) creation of an authentic environment / situation, because aspects of listening are at the same time combined with aspects of seeing, as happens in the real world, 2). Integrated skill activity, which is learning activities that involve integrated skills between listening, reading, speaking and writing at the same time that are more easily patterned, 3) students have the freedom to carry out activities in accordance with their desires and abilities in choosing preferred material and repeating things things that still need to, determine the range of learning time needed, determine their own sequence of learning steps where for each individual is not necessarily the same (Warschaurer, 1996 in Harjanti, 2005).

General Definition of Globalization, Modernization and Westernization

General Definition of Globalization, Modernization and Westernization
The term globalization comes from the English word global which means universal and lization which means process. So the meaning of globalization according to the term is as a process of spreading new elements of information, thought, lifestyle, and technology worldwide. The occurrence of globalization is marked by the process of a country’s borders becoming increasingly narrow or fading because of the ease of interacting with the country both by exchanging information, trade, lifestyle, and other forms of interaction. In General, Understanding Globalization is a worldwide process where individuals are not bound by countries or increasingly narrower regional boundaries.
Globalization apart from the above understanding, there are also opinions of experts, among others, as follows or according from South African Journals;
Achmad Suparman: Understanding Globalization according to Achmad Suparman that globalization is a process that makes a thing or behavior as a characteristic of every individual in the world without being limited by territory.
Selo Soemardjan: Understanding globalization according to Selo Soemardjan is a process of forming a system of organization and communication between people throughout the world to follow certain systems and certain rules in common.
Understanding Modernization is a form of movement from underdeveloped or underdeveloped towards a better way to achieve the life of a more developed, developing and prosperous society.
Modernization is a process of change from the traditional way to a new, more advanced way to improve the quality of people’s lives. The birth of modernization is the result of advancing science and technology that continues to grow. The level of technology in building modernization is felt and enjoyed by all walks of life from metropolitan cities to remote villages.
Modernization has attracted the attention of experts who express their opinions in the understanding of experts. As according to Widjojo Nitisastro, and Soerjono Soekanto, following his opinion ..
Widjojo Nitisastro: Understanding Modernization according to Widjojo Nitisastro is a total transformation and traditional or premodern shared life in terms of technology and social organization, towards economic and political patterns.
Soerjono Soekanto: Understanding Modernization according to Soerjono Soekanto who said that modernization is a form and directed social change based on a plan that is usually called social planning.
Understanding Westernization is a process where people live or adopt Western culture in various fields including politics, industry, technology, economics, law, style of food, clothing, religion, language, and values.
Westernization is a large current that has political, social, cultural and technological outreach. Westernization is the embodiment of the Christian-Zionist-colonist conspiracy against Muslims. With westernization, the life of the nation, especially Muslims in the world, has become westernized. The concept of westernization is materialistic and modernizing. Westernization can be interpreted as complete freedom.
The opinions of experts regarding the meaning of westernization are as follows; Arif Furtonutely: According to Arif Furtonutely, that the notion of westernization is a large current in the political, social, cultural, cultural, knowledge and artistic dimensions to change the character of life of nations in the world in general and Islamic countries in particular into Western ideologies.
Eka Gunawan: Understanding Westernization according to Eka Gunawan in his book Modernization, Westernization, Secuiarisation that the definition of westernization is as a process of imitation by a society / state about the culture of western countries which is considered better than the culture of the country itself.
Differences in Globalization, Modernization & Westernization. Globalization: increasing interdependence among countries in the world, not a single country can live alone without the assistance of other countries. Modernization: changing the way of thinking from traditional and irrational to rational, efficient and practical ways of thinking. Westernization: lies in the process of identification and imitation of western culture. Thus a brief article on Understanding, Differences Globalization, Modernization and Westernization. Hopefully this article about the understanding of globalization, modernization and westernization will be useful. Thank you.
Social interactions are social relations that involve relationships between individuals, individuals (individuals) with groups, and groups with groups. Without social interaction there would not be a life together. Social process is an interaction or mutual relationship or mutual influence between humans that lasts throughout his life in society.
According to Soerjono Soekanto, social processes are defined as related ways that can be seen if individuals and social groups meet each other and determine the system and form of social relations.
Understanding Social Interaction according to some experts can be concluded that, interaction is a reciprocal relationship between two or more people, and each person involved in it plays an active role. In the interaction is also more than just a relationship between the parties involved, but there is mutual influence.
Social interaction can occur because of the factors that encourage so that led to the process of social interaction. Social interaction factors occur in two factors, namely factors from within a person or factors from the individual itself and factors from outside the individual or from outside the person. of the two factors there are various impulses that make things in interactions can occur can be related to others such as in terms of social interaction so that the two factors that occur social interaction is very important in the occurrence of social interaction. To find an explanation of these two factors, internal factors and external or individual factors, let’s look at the explanation below.

General Understanding of the Curriculum and According to Experts

General Understanding of the Curriculum and According to Experts
There are many opinions of experts / experts who provide definitions of curriculum understanding. Understanding the General Curriculum is a teaching and learning design program that is guided by educators and students. From a very strategic and fundamental role in the running of good education, the curriculum has a role in achieving goals because whether or not a curriculum is seen from the process and results of achievements that have been taken. The curriculum comes from English, namely Curriculum which means lesson plans, where the Curriculum comes from the Latin Currere which has many meanings such as running fast, fast forward, undergoing and trying.
Understanding Curriculum According to the Definition of Experts on Cameroon Journals. After discussing the general understanding of the curriculum and the origin of the language of the curriculum, it is time for us to refer to the understanding of the curriculum according to experts who provide an overview of the various definitions put forward to facilitate and understand the actual understanding of the curriculum which is fundamental to the actual function of the curriculum as an educational process to achieve goals, therefore to facilitate and understand it.
Understanding Curriculum According to the Definition of Experts. Understanding Curriculum According to Daniel Tanner and Laurel Tanner, understanding the curriculum is a learning experience that is directed and planned in a structured and structured through the process of reconstructing knowledge and experience systematically under the supervision of educational institutions so that students have motivation and interest in learning.
Understanding the curriculum According to Inlow (1966): Understanding the curriculum is a comprehensive effort specifically designed by the school in guiding students to get the results of the lessons that have been determined.
Understanding Curriculum According to Hilda Taba (1962): Understanding the curriculum as a plan of learning which means that the curriculum is something that is planned to be learned by students that contain plans for students. In his book “Curriculum Development Theory and Pratice”.
Understanding Curriculum According to Kerr, J. F (1968): Understanding the curriculum is a learning that is designed and implemented with individuals and groups both outside and inside the school.
Understanding Curriculum According to George A. Beaucham (1976): Understanding the curriculum is a written document that contains the contents of subjects taught to students through various subjects, the choice of scientific disciplines, the formulation of problems in daily life
Understanding Curriculum According to Neagley and Evans (1967): Understanding the curriculum is all experiences that have been designed by the school to help students achieve learning outcomes to the best student abilities
Understanding Curriculum According to Law. No. 20 of 2003: Understanding the curriculum is a set of plans and arrangements regarding the objectives, content, and teaching materials and ways used as guidelines for organizing learning activities to achieve national education goals.
Understanding Curriculum According to Good V. Carter (1973): Understanding the curriculum is a systematic teaching group or sequence of subjects required to pass or certify in major lessons
Understanding Curriculum According to Grayson (1978): Understanding the curriculum is a plan to get the expenditure (out-comes) expected from a learning
Understanding the Curriculum According to Murray Print: Understanding the curriculum is a planned learning space given directly to students by an educational institution and experience that can be enjoyed by all students when the curriculum is implemented.
Understanding Curriculum According to Crow and Crow: Understanding the curriculum is a teaching design or a number of subjects that are arranged systematically to complete a program to obtain a diploma.
Wikipedia, Education is a conscious and planned effort to create an atmosphere of learning and learning process so that students actively develop their potential to have spiritual spiritual strength, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character, and the skills needed by themselves and the community.
From the above statement it can be concluded that Education is a conscious and planned effort to create an atmosphere of learning and the process of learning or training so that students can actively develop their potential to have spiritual spiritual strength, emotional, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character, and the skills needed by him and the community.
Before further discussing the ins and outs of education, it helps us to know in advance about the limits or understanding of education. With a complete understanding, we will more easily enter into deeper discussions about education.
According to the Great Language Dictionary, education comes from the word “educator”, then given the prefix “me” so that it becomes “educate” which means to maintain and give practice. in looking after and giving training there needs to be teachings, demands and leadership regarding morals and intelligence of thought. Some definitions of education, including the following:
John Dewey. Education is the process of forming fundamental abilities intellectually, emotionally toward nature and fellow human beings. M.J. Longeveled. Education is an effort, influence, protection and assistance given to children to be directed to maturity, or rather help children to be capable enough to carry out their own life’s tasks.
Thompson. Education is the influence of the environment on individuals to produce changes that remain in the habits of behavior, thoughts and nature. Frederick J. Mc Donald. Education is a process or activity that is directed to change human behavior. H. Horne. Education is an ongoing process of adjustment that develops physically and mentally that is conscious and free to God J.J. Russeau. Education is a briefing that is not available at the time of the children, but is needed at the time of adulthood.

General Understanding of Diagrams and the Others

General Understanding of Diagrams and the Others
Generally Understanding Diagrams are pictures or graphics that contain information and explain the means, procedures, or activities that are usually carried out by a system. Diagrams can also mean images (sketches, blurred) that use lines and symbols to explain or show something.
Diagram is a picture of data that has been processed in such a way as a graph, line or table. Diagram is a means to facilitate users in analyzing data with an attractive appearance and easy to understand. The contents of the diagram are usually in the form of nominal, scale or statistical data.
The Types of Diagrams are as follows. divided into several types of different shapes and pictures (Taher on Sudan Journals):
Line diagram is a diagram that presents data using lines. Whether it’s a straight line, curve or dotted line. This diagram is usually used to present statistical data obtained through observations from time to time in sequence. In its application, it usually uses the X axis and the Y axis. The X axis is used to indicate the time of observation, while the Y axis is used to show the results of observational values at a certain time. Collection of time and observations form points in the XY plane, then each column of two adjacent points connected by a straight line so that a line chart is created or also called a line graph.
Definition of Line Diagrams. Pie Chart. A pie chart is a diagram that presents data using a circle as a picture. Usually the data presented in the circle diagram is in the form of percent data. In making a pie chart, the first thing you have to do is determine the magnitude of each object’s percentage of the overall data and the size of the center angle of the circle sector.
Understanding Circle Diagrams. Line Grid Diagram. A line box diagram is a diagram whose data is presented using a rectangle accompanied by a line. The statistical data used in describing the grid diagran is in the form of the Five String Statistics, which consists of the smallest data and the largest (extreme) data, Q1, Q2, and Q3.
Understanding Line Charts. Bar Chart. A bar chart is a diagram that uses rectangles as a tool to present data. Generally this diagram is used to illustrate the development of the value of an object of research within a certain period. This diagram presents various kinds of information upright or horizontally and as wide as the separate bars.
Understanding Bar Charts. Presentation in the form of graphic images or diagrams can further explain the problem visually. A bar chart (histogram) is a description of a frequency distribution, where for each class expressed on a horizontal (flat) scale and its frequency on a vertical (upright) scale; or vice versa. Data which are in the form of categories or attributes are very appropriate to be presented with bar charts. If the diagram is made upright, then a flat axis is used to express the attribute. Quantum or data values are drawn on an upright axis.
A histogram is a graphical representation of numerical data distribution. This is an estimate of the probability distribution of continuous variables (quantitative variables) and was first introduced by Karl Pearson. To build a histogram, the first step is to “bin” the range of values — that is, divide the entire range of values into a series of intervals — and then calculate how many values fall into each interval. Garbage is usually defined as successive, non-overlapping variable intervals. Trash (intervals) must be close together, and usually the same size.
If trash is the same size, the rectangle that is erected on top of the bin with a height proportional to the frequency, the number of cases in each bin. In general, however, garbage does not need to be the same width; in that case, an established rectangle has an area proportional to the frequency of cases in the trash [3] The vertical axis is not frequency but density: the number of cases per unit of variable on the horizontal axis. The histogram can also be normalized to display relative frequencies. It then shows the proportion of cases that fall into each of several categories, with the sum of the heights equaling 1. An example of the variable bin width is shown in the Census Bureau data below.
The histogram gives a rough sense of the distribution density that underlies the data, and often for the density estimation: estimating the probability density function of the underlying variable. The total area of the histogram used for probability density is always normalized to 1. If the length of the intervals on the x-axis are all 1, then the histogram is identical to the relative frequency plot.
A histogram can be thought of as a simple kernel density estimate, which uses the kernel to smooth the frequency of garbage. This results in a smooth probability density function, which in general more accurately reflects the distribution of the underlying variables. The density estimate can be plotted as an alternative to the histogram, and is usually described as a curve rather than a set of squares. Another alternative is the shifted histogram average, which is quick to calculate and provides a smooth curve density estimate without using a kernel.
The histogram is one of the seven basic tools for quality control. Histograms are often confused with bar graphs. A histogram is used for continuous data, where garbage represents the range of data, and meaningful rectangular fields, while bar charts are plots of categorical variables and discontinuities must be indicated by having gaps between rectangles, from which only lengths are meaningful. Often this is ignored, which can cause a confused bar chart for the histogram.

General Understanding of Fiscal Policy

General Understanding of Fiscal Policy, Objectives and Miscellaneous
Fiscal policy is commonly referred to as fiscal politics, in general the notion of fiscal policy (fiscal policy) is the implementation of a form of operational budget policy carried out by the government in regulating state finances. The policy direction emphasizes the allocation of state expenditure and state revenue specifically on taxation, for example just high and low taxes, or even tax exemption in controlling the economy to achieve national goals. In carrying out the policy is very effective especially coupled with monetary policy.
Fiscal Policy Theory
1. Functional Theory of Financing
This theory was put forward by AP Lerner in American Journals. According to him, the budget is in the form of financing by the government and has no direct effect on national income and aims at expanding employment opportunities. In this theory the tax does not need to be withdrawn when the unemployment rate is high because it can reduce the opportunity for new job vacancies. The inflation will be overcome by government loans.
2. Budget Management Theory
In the theory of budget management, it is stated that revenues from taxes or loans and state expenditures constitute an integrated whole that cannot be separated in order to create a stable and stable economy. According to Alvin Hasen who put forward this theory, it is a time of deflation where prices are cheap because people do not have purchasing power. This causes the economy to be sluggish.
At the time of deflation, the state should use a budget deficit policy. The government borrows funds to foreign or private parties so that the money circulating domestically increases because of the loan. As a result the government can increase demand for goods and services so that it will improve economic conditions.
When there is inflation where prices rise, the government can use a surplus budget policy. With a surplus budget policy the government will try to save expenses and seek government savings. This policy will influence and reduce the demand for goods and services by the government, and the existence of government savings will add to the total savings (aggregate).
Reducing demand and increasing savings can reduce inflation. Because one of the policies to overcome inflation is to increase savings through increased interest rates. This is to reduce the amount of money circulating in the community.
Inflation is when the money in circulation exceeds the existing goods. Even though prices continue to rise, people will continue to buy because they have money, including the government. With consumption expenditure and government demand, there is only a slight increase in goods and prices do not increase too quickly.

3. Automatic Stable Theory
Budget policies must regulate government spending. This is seen from the comparison between the results and costs incurred for a development project that will be funded by the State Budget. Thus the budget balance can occur by itself.
The purpose of doing fiscal policy and various fiscal policies are as follows ….
1. Purpose of Fiscal Policy
The objectives of the occurrence and continuity of fiscal policies among others are as follows.
Achieve economic stability
Spur and encourage economic growth
Expand and create jobs
Creating the realization of social justice for the community
Achieve distribution and income distribution.
Prevent unemployment and stabilize prices
A common problem in economic activity is inflation. Inflation is the amount of money circulating in the community that is greater than the amount of goods and services will cause an increase in the prices of goods. Ways to deal with inflation through fiscal policy include the following.
Alternative ways of dealing with inflation through fiscal policy
American Bank as a central bank with financial authority will try to reduce the amount of money circulating in the community until a balance is created with the amount of goods and services available.
Strive to increase production so that later the number of goods or services in the community increases which will then achieve a balance between the amount of goods / services with the amount of money in circulation
Decision to Overcome Inflation through Fiscal Policy
Reducing government expenditure budgets by optimizing vital items.
Increase tax revenue through efforts to increase public tax awareness and the imposition of high tax rates for several components of the tax deemed necessary.
Conducting government loans to cover the existing shortcomings. But the nature of the loans made by the government is only as a complement in the development process.
2. Types of Fiscal Policies
Types of fiscal policy are divided into 2 parts, namely types of fiscal policy based on theoretical terms and kinds of fiscal policy based on the amount of revenue and expenditure, among others, the following.
a. Types of Fiscal Policies Based on Sigi Theory
Functional Finance: Functional finance is a policy that regulates and considers government expenditure from various indirect effects on national income and aims at increasing employment opportunities.
Budget Management (The Managed Budget Approach): Budget management is regulating government spending, debt and taxation in achieving a stable economy.
The Automatic Stabilizing Budget: Budget stabilization is a policy that regulates all government spending by considering the benefits and costs of various government expenditures and programs. the goal is saving the government budget.
b. Various Fiscal Policies Based on Amount of Revenue and Expenditures
Balanced Budget Policy: A balanced budget policy is a policy that compiles the same amount of revenue and expenditure, so the revenue received by the government must be the same as its expenditure and vice versa. The advantage of this policy is that there is no need for loans from both domestic and foreign countries, while the disadvantage is that if the country’s economy is in a bad state it will cause the economy to worsen
Surplus Budget Policy: surplus budget policy is a policy that is prepared with income / revenue must be greater than the expenditure or expenditure with a little but a lot of income / revenue. This is used to prevent inflation.
Deficit Budget Policy: deficit budget policy is a policy that is prepared by spending greater than revenue / income. This is the opposite of the surplus budget policy. The budget deficit policy is carried out to reduce depression and slump in increasing economic growth but causing budget shortages.
Dynamic Budget Policy: Dynamic budget policy is a policy that is compiled by means of an equal amount of expenditure and revenue and gradually increases in number. This policy is carried out to address the growing needs so that a large amount is needed.

General Understanding of the Press and Function

General Understanding of the Press and the Function of the Press
The term “press” comes from the language, which in English means press. The press literally means print and meaningfully broadcasts are printed or printed publications.
In its development the press has two meanings, namely the press in the broad sense and the press in the narrow sense. In a broad sense, the press covers all mass communication media, such as radio, television, and film that function to transmit / spread information, news, ideas, thoughts, or feelings of a person or group of people to others. So the term radio journalism, television journalism, press journalism is known. In a narrow sense, the press is only classified as publishing products that go through the printing process, such as daily newspapers, weekly magazines, semi-monthly magazines and so on known as print media.
According information from Iranian Journals, the press has two sides, namely: first it is the oldest communication medium in the world, and second, the press as a social institution or social institution is an integral part of society, and is not an alien and separate element from it. And as a community institution it influences and is influenced by other community institutions.
Understanding the Press in General is the mass media carrying out journalistic activities in the form of writing, sound, and images as well as data and graphics using electronic media and print media and etc. The press in etymology, the word press (Dutch), presse (french), Press (English), while the word press in Latin is pressare from the word premere meaning “press” or “print”. the terminological definition of press is print or print media. The term press is known as one type of mass media or mass communication media that has long been known by the public and not only that the term press is also commonly associated with newspapers (magazines) or magazines (magazines).
Understanding the Press According to Experts. Understanding the press according to Weiner, said that the understanding of the press is a print journalist or print media publicist or news coverage, and print media. Understanding the Press according to Oemar Seno Adji communication experts divide the notion of the press in the narrow sense and the understanding of the press in the broad sense, the meaning of the press in the narrow sense is broadcasting thoughts, ideas, or news with the word written, while the notion of the press in the broad sense is to include in it a mass communications media that transmits people’s thoughts and feelings both with written and oral words.
Understanding the press according to Gamle & Gamle is a part of communication between humans (human communication), which means, the media is a channel or means in expanding and furthering the reach of the process of delivering messages between people. The understanding of the press according to the Law which reads that the notion of the press is a social institution or mass communication vehicle that carries out journalistic activities which include, seek, obtain, possess, store, process, and convey information in the form of text, sound, pictures, sounds and images and data and graphics and in other forms using print or electronic media, and all types of available channels.
The press has a function / role in the world and society. In the country, freedom of expression is regulated, and indeed expressing that opinion is very important and not just in the political sphere. But in all fields, freedom of opinion is also related to freedom of providing information or disseminating information through mass media.
The article states that “everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and express opinions”. This right includes freedom to hold opinions without being interfered with and a person is free to argue through any media, whether print or electronic media.
Freedom of opinion means freedom of the press. The press in the state has a very important role, the press is useful as a liaison of information between the government and its people. So that the people can know more about the development of their country.

Education as a planned effort to educate

Education as a planned effort to educate
In general, Understanding Education is a conscious and planned effort to create an atmosphere of learning and learning process for students to actively develop their potential to have spiritual spiritual strength, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character, and the skills needed by themselves and the community. Education can be interpreted as a conscious and systematic effort to achieve a standard of living or for better progress. Simply put, Understanding education is a learning process for students to be able to understand, understand, and make humans more critical in thinking.
According information from Pakistan Journals, Etymologically or origin, the word education in English is called education, in Latin education is called educatum which is composed of two words namely E and Duco where the word E means a development from the inside out or from a little more, while Duco means development or being developed. So, etymologically the notion of education is the process of developing one’s own abilities and individual strengths. Meanwhile, according to the Indonesian Dictionary, education is the process of changing attitudes and behavior of a person or group of people in an effort to mature humans through teaching and training efforts.
Education can be obtained both formally and non-formally. Formal education is obtained by following planned programs, structured by an institution, department or ministry of a country. While non-formal education is knowledge gained from everyday life from various experiences both experienced or learned from others.
Understanding Education According to Experts. Ki Hajar Dewantara (Father of Indonesian National Education): According to Ki Hajar Dewantara that the notion of education is a demand in the lives of growing children, as for its purpose, education is to guide all natural forces that exist in these children, so that they as humans and as community members can achieve the highest level of safety and happiness.
Ahmad D. Marimba: Understanding education according to Ahmad D. Marimba is conscious guidance or guidance by educators there is an educated physical and spiritual development towards the formation of the ultimate personality.
H.H.Horne: Understanding education according to Horne that education is a tool in which social groups continue their existence in influencing themselves and maintaining their idealism.
Martinus Jan Langeveld: Understanding education according to Martinus Jan Langeveld that the notion of education is an effort to help children to be able to carry out their life’s tasks independently so that they can be morally responsible. Education is an adult human endeavor to guide underage humans to maturity.
Gunning and Kohnstamm: Understanding education according to Gunning and Kohnstamm is the process of forming a conscience. An ethical formation and self-determination in accordance with conscience.
Stella Van Petten Henderson: According to Stella Van Petten Henderson that education is a combination of growth, self-development and social heritage.
Charter. V. Good: Understanding education according to Carter V. Good that education is the process of developing individual skills in community attitudes and behavior. Social processes where a person is influenced by an organized environment, such as home or school, so that they can achieve self-development and social skills.
According to the law: The definition of education based on the law is a conscious and planned effort to create an atmosphere of learning and learning process so that students actively develop their potential to have spiritual spiritual power, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character, and the skills needed by themselves, the community, nation and state.
Educational Objectives. Based on the Law which states that the purpose of education is to educate the lives of the people and develop a whole person, that is, those who have faith and are devoted to God Almighty and have good character, have knowledge and skills, physical and spiritual health, a steady and independent personality and sense of community responsibility nation.
Based on the Law on the National Education System in article 3, that the aim of national education is to develop the potential of students to become human beings who believe in and fear God Almighty, have noble, healthy, knowledgeable, capable, creative, independent, and become citizens who are democratic and responsible.
Thus information about Understanding Education in General Hopefully friends can receive and benefit us all both the notion of education, understanding of education according to experts, the purpose of education. That is all and thank you.