Administration and Management Functions

Administration and Management Functions
It is known that basically administration functions to determine organizational goals and formulate general policies, while management functions to carry out activities that need to be carried out in order to achieve goals within the limits of public policy that has been formulated.
In the implementation process, administration and management have certain tasks that must be carried out by themselves. These tasks are commonly referred to / interpreted as administrative and management functions. Until now scholars have not had a unanimous agreement on the administrative and management functions, both in terms of their classification and the terminology used.
According to Prof Sondang in his Journal “Managerial Functions in Swaziland Journals” and “Administrative Philosophy” the administrative and management functions are: 1. Planning (Organizing) 2. Organizing (Organizing) 3. Provision of Motivation 4. Motivating 5. Evaluating (Evaluating). These functions absolutely must be carried out by administration and management. Inability to carry out these functions will result in slow or fast death of the organization.
A. Planning (Planning). Planning can be defined as the whole process of thinking and determining the things that will be done in the future in order to achieve the goals that have been determined. This understanding shows that planning is the first administrative and management function. The reason is that without a plan, there is no basis for carrying out certain activities within the framework of achieving the objectives. Planning becomes the first function because it is the basis and starting point for further implementation activities.
The question becomes: What activities must be carried out in order to achieve predetermined goals? Where are certain activities carried out? This question covers the location of the building of the organization to be erected, spatial structure, place of employment. When certain activities will be carried out. This means that in the plan, a priority system must be drawn, time scheduling and matters related to the time factor. How to carry out activities towards the achievement of objectives? Which is covered by this question concerns the system and work procedures, standards that must be met, how to make and submit reports, how to save documents and others. The question “Siupa” means finding answers in a plan about the description of the division of tasks, authority and responsibility. Philosophically, the most important question in this series of questions is the “why” question. Most important because this question is addressed to the five questions that precede it. If the leadership group can satisfy itself with the answers obtained to the six questions, a good plan will be created.
B. Organizing
Organizing is the whole process of grouping people, tools, tasks, responsibilities and authority in such a way as to create an organization that can be mobilized as a unity in order to achieve predetermined goals.
This definition shows that organizing is the first step towards implementing a previously arranged plan. Thus it is also logical if organizing as an administrative and management function is placed as a second function, following the planning function. Also seen in the definition is that the implementation of the organizing function produces an organization that can be mobilized as a rounded entity.
The organization as an administration and management tool seems important when it is remembered that the movement of the organization towards the achievement of objectives is very dependent on the ability of people in the organization to move the organization in the direction that has been set.
C. Motivating. Mobilization is the whole process of giving working motives to subordinates in such a way that they want to work sincerely for the achievement of organizational goals efficiently and economically. “Motivating” implicitly means that the leadership of the organization is in the midst of his subordinates and thus can provide guidance, instruction, advice and correction if necessary. The implementation of the “Motivating” function in an organization can be carried out well by using the following techniques: Explain the organization’s goals to everyone in the organization. Try to make everyone aware, understand and accept these goals well. Try to make everyone understand the organizational structure. Emphasize the importance of collaboration in carrying out the activities required. Treat each subordinate as a human being with full understanding. Give appreciation and praise to competent subordinates and reprimands and guidance to those who are less able to work.
7. Reassure everyone that by working well in the organization the personal goals of these people will be achieved to the maximum extent.
D. Control (Controling)
Supervision is the process of observation rather than the implementation of all activities of the organization to ensure that all work being carried out goes according to a predetermined plan. From this definition it is clear that there is a very close relationship between planning and supervision.
This means that planning and supervision are both halves of the same coin. It is clear that without a supervision plan it is impossible to carry out because there are no guidelines for carrying out that supervision. Conversely, an unsupervised plan will mean serious deviations and / or deviations without any means to prevent it.

Management and Administration

Management and Administration
The line between administration and management is very thin and unclear. They look similar, but are very different from each other. Administration means the process of managing the entire organization effectively. Management is the act of completing work through another. We often get confused between the two. However, the main point of difference between the two is that management can be held accountable to the administration.
Definition of Management. Management is defined as an act of managing people and their work, to obtain common goals by using organizational resources. Management creates an environment under which managers and subordinates can work together to achieve group goals. Management is a group of people who use their abilities and talents in carrying out the integrity of the system of the organization. Management is an activity, function, process, discipline, and many more (Thailand Journals, 2019).
Planning, managing, leading and motivating, controlling, coordinating and making decisions are the main activities carried out by management. Management brings 5M from an organization, namely Men (People), Materials (Materials), Machines (Machines), Methods (Methods), and Money (Money). Management is a result-oriented activity, which focuses on achieving the desired results.
Understanding Administration. Administration is a systematic process of managing the management of a business organization, educational institution such as a school or college, government office or any non-profit organization. The main function of administration is the formation of plans, policies, procedures, setting goals and objectives, enforcing rules and regulations, etc.
Administration lies in the fundamental framework of the organization, within which the management of the organization functions. Administration is bureaucratic. Administration is a broader term as administration involves the functions of forecasting, planning, management, and decision making at the highest level of a company. Administration represents the highest layer of the management hierarchy of the organization. This highest level authority could be the owner or business partner who invested capital at the start of the business. They get rewards in the form of profit or dividends.
Main Differences Between Management and Administration; The main differences between management and administration are as follows: Management is a systematic way of managing people and things in the organization. Administration is defined as the act of managing the entire organization by a group of people. Management is an activity at the functional and business level, while administration is an activity at a high level. Management plays an executive role in the organization. Unlike administration which has a decisive role. Administration determines all important decisions of the organization while management makes decisions within administrative boundaries.
A collection of people who are employees of an organization collectively is called management. On the other hand, the administration represents the owner of the organization. Management can be seen in organizations that generate profits such as business ventures. On the contrary, administration is found in government and military offices, associations, hospitals, religious organizations, and all non-profit businesses. Management is all about plans and actions, but administration is more related to policy formulation and goal setting. The manager takes care of the management of the organization, while the administrator is responsible for the administration of the organization. Management focuses on managing people and their work. On the other hand, administration focuses on making the best use possible from organizational resources.
Conclusion. Theoretically, you could say that both have different terms, but in practice, you will find that the two terms are more or less the same. You will realize that a manager carries out both functional and administrative activities. Although managers who work at the highest level are said to be part of the administration even though managers working at the lower or middle level represent management. So, we can say that administration is above management.
Vision and mission. The company explains how its purpose and direction through its vision and mission. Both seem to have the same function, but actually have different meanings, many people are still difficult to distinguish from one another. What is the difference between vision and mission? The vision briefly explains what the company wants in the future, while the mission explains what the company must do now to achieve its vision.
Objectives of Vision and Mission. Vision explains why a company stands. Vision is a picture of what the company wants to give to the community, not only customers, but also employees, investors and all people related to the company. The mission aims to guide how a company operates in its daily life and determine the decisions in the company. The mission provides planning how to achieve its objectives. With this mission, each member of the company will get a clear picture of what they need to do now and how they should do their work

Agriculture Science Tower Canal

Agriculture Science Tower Canal
Agricultural science (agricultural science) is a field of study that studies agriculture broadly. Like the health sciences family, this field is part of the applied and multidisciplinary family of life sciences. With the core of biology, this science also utilizes mathematics, statistics, natural sciences, economic and social sciences, and various technologies from other scientific families. Agricultural science is not necessarily only related to agriculture and agronomy (the science of plant utilization). The definition of agriculture is a series of activities that change the environment to produce animal and vegetable products that benefit humans, while agronomy is a study related to the cultivation and other uses of plants; so that agricultural science covers a broader range of these two things, it also concerns the cultivation of plants and animals, on land and in water.
In line with the agricultural development of science and technology, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is no longer seen as a technology, but has become a concept in solving field problems (Kenmore 1996 in Zimbabwean Journals).
Waage (1997) classifies the concept of IPM into two groups, namely the concept of IPM technology and IPM ecology. The IPM technology concept is a further development from the initial concept that was sparked by Stern et al. (1959), which was later developed by experts through the Earth Summit agenda in Rio de Janeiro in 2019 and FAO. The aim of IPM technology is to limit the use of synthetic insecticides by introducing the concept of economic threshold as a basis for establishing pest control. This approach encourages the replacement of chemical pesticides with alternative control technologies, which use more biological materials and methods, including natural enemies, biological pesticides, and pheromones. In this way, the negative impact of the use of pesticides on health and the environment can be reduced (Fortunately, 2000).
Agriculture is the biggest human intervention on nature, which impacts the environment in general. Issues regarding intensive agriculture, industrial agriculture, and increasing human population have attracted the attention of agricultural scientists about the importance of developing new agricultural methods to deal with this. This includes the assumption that the solution to the agricultural problem lies only in science and technology, whereas other solutions such as integrated pest management, land and water management, the concept of sustainable agricultural cultivation, agricultural institutions, the concept of integrated fisheries, and digital agricultural extension can also be alternative solutions for widespread agricultural problems.
The concept of ecological IPM departs from the development and application of IPM in agricultural systems in certain places. In this case, pest control is based on knowledge and information about pest population dynamics and natural enemies and ecosystem balance. Unlike the IPM concept of technology which still accepts chemical pest control techniques based on economic thresholds, the IPM ecological concept tends to reject chemical pest control. In addressing these two IPM concepts, we must be good at integrating them because each concept has advantages and disadvantages. This is because if the two concepts are applied it cannot be generally accepted.
Soil is one component of land in the form of the top layer of the earth’s crust which consists of minerals and organic matter and has physical, chemical, biological characteristics, and has the ability to support the lives of humans and other living things. As we know the food chain originates from plants. Humans and animals live from plants. There are plants and animals that live in the sea, but most of our food comes from the ground. Therefore, it is our duty to preserve the soil so that it can still support life on this earth. However, as with water and air pollution, soil pollution is also largely due to human activities as well.
Environmentally friendly plant cultivation business is a cultivation business carried out with the principle of not damaging the environment and polluting the environment related to aspects of natural resource utilization, waste disposal and the safety of the surrounding environment. Management of environmentally friendly crop cultivation which is realized in the application of appropriate management concepts is a way out in realizing an environmentally friendly farming business (Department of Agriculture, Food Crops and Horticulture 2007). The development of the global and regional economy requires farmers, especially food and vegetable farmers to do farming not only to get high production but also to consider the quality of production and support of farming. This is due to the growing desire of consumers for agricultural products of food crops, vegetables, plantations as well as quality fisheries with a high level of food security and to increase public awareness and understanding of environmental conservation.
Increased biomass production activities (plants produced by agricultural activities, plantations and plantation forests) that use uncontrolled land can cause damage to the land for biomass production, thereby reducing the quality and function of the soil which in turn can threaten the survival of humans and other living things.
Several indicators of concern regarding the results of the evaluation of the development of agricultural activities to date, namely: (1) the level of land productivity has decreased, (2) the level of land fertility has declined, (3) conversion of agricultural land has increased, (4) the area and quality of degraded land has expanded , (5) the level of pollution and damage to the agricultural environment increases, (6) the carrying capacity of the environment decreases, (7) the level of unemployment in the countryside increases, (8) the exchange power of farmers decreases, (9) the income and welfare of farm families decreases, (10) inequality between groups of people increases.

Course: General Agricultural Science

Course: General Agricultural Science
In etymology Agriculture, derived from the word AGRICULTURE, where AGER means land or land and CULTURA means to maintain or work on. According to A.T. Mosher, Agriculture is a type of production activity that is based on the growth process of plants and animals.
Agricultural Science is a science that tries to study and examine human businesses by organizing natural resources, people and the environment more efficiently in an effort to meet their needs. The environment is a complex system based outside of individuals that affects the growth and development of organisms (Ethiopian Journals).
World which is an agrarian country, most of its population who live in rural areas make a living as farmers. In general they have the desire to increase their agricultural production but because of the many problems they face, it is difficult to achieve what they want. The problem of the narrowness of farming land in the World generally strikes among farmers who are the cause of the increasingly widespread poverty in the smallholder group.
World is also the largest rice importer in the world. In 1986 the World was able to become a food self-sufficient country because it had succeeded in finding and using superior seeds. However, World agricultural production from year to year actually decreases due to several factors caused by this decline including the number of land use changes, namely agricultural land that has high productivity potential shifted into the development sector to improve the welfare of life especially with an increase in population from year to year that encourages new agricultural reclamation by utilizing agricultural land that has been reduced, the food self-sufficiency business will decline.
Agricultural development programs, especially in the areas of food security and security that have long been carried out in the World, are still very alarming. The condition of food agriculture in the World, both in terms of quantity and quality, has apparently not been able to meet its own food needs, and lately we tend to be increasingly dependent on imports of food products from abroad. The results obtained from the export performance of agricultural products are also considered not encouraging. The rate of increase in imports of agricultural products tends to be greater than the rate of increase in exports, making it increasingly difficult for the World position in the era of a competitive global market.
The agricultural sector plays an important role in the national economy, its contribution to the country’s foreign exchange income outside of oil and gas and in the people’s economy cannot be ignored. In line with this, the condition of agriculture which has high economic value and has a wide market will receive top priority in its development. Thus, the discovery of food needs, industrial raw materials, increased employment, increased business opportunities and increased exports of agricultural commodities are expected to be guaranteed and sustainable.
Agriculture will become a big force if it is managed in an integrated manner as an agribusiness system. Building a solid agribusiness system and business means building growth as well as equity so that there is a balance between sectors. This also means creating meaningful employment that is outside the agricultural sector, so that agricultural burdens that are too heavy to accommodate the workforce can be overcome.
Agriculture in the narrow sense is as people’s agriculture, which is a family farming business, where the production of main foodstuffs such as rice, crops and horticultural crops. While agriculture in the broadest sense includes smallholder agriculture, plantations, animal husbandry, fisheries and forestry.
The development of primitive societies -> Availability of sufficient food -> Population is very lacking while food is abundant -> Collection, gathering or hunting.
Abundant food sources -> Temporary and diminishing sif
Human population -> Increasingly
Both of the above is a problem, namely how food sources remain available to meet human needs. To overcome these problems began agricultural activities in the form of farming by developing plants and animals.
The entire process above, Agricultural Development which consists of several agricultural systems.
Production Process is a process of processing raw materials into finished materials. Plants are primary agricultural factories and livestock (animals) are secondary agricultural factories. Agriculture arose when humans began to control and regulate the growth of plants and animals.
Farmers are people who control the growth of plants and animals for profit and are directly involved in the process of growing plants and animals. Farmers play the role of Manager (manager) and Cultivator (jurutani), hand, muscle and eye skills.
Farmer Decision Making through 3 stages, namely: Finding data, information for decision making (Intelligence activity) or assessment, Knowing the choice of doing from the various options available (Design activity), Choosing among alternatives (Choice alternatives)
Characteristics of Farmers: Farmers are different from one another, living under their abilities, reluctant to try new methods recommended, respecting the approval of family and surrounding communities, progressive farmers, believing in themselves, not happy being urged and given instructions about what they should do it. Small farmers, are the largest group in the world group of farmers with the following characteristics: Farming in an environment of increasing local population pressure, Having limited resources so as to create a low level of life, Dependent in whole or in part on subsistence production, Lack of health services , education and other services. In the world the limits of small farmers: Farmers whose income is low, which is less than the equivalent of 240 kg of rice per capita per year, farmers who have narrow land, that is <0.25 Ha of paddy fields in Java, or <o, 5 hectares, farmers who lack capital and have limited savings, farmers who have limited knowledge and are less dynamic

Between Literature, Anthropology, and Culture

Between Literature, Anthropology, and Culture
Literature is a beautiful cultural copyright. Literature is polished with the language of beauty. Literature is the area of expression, while culture is the content in it. As for anthropology is the science of humanity, the anthropology of literature is the study of literature that is culturally charged. In this connection, the fundamental thinking of Wellek and Warren (in Indonesian Journals) about literature that contains aspects of dulce et utile, beautiful and useful, has been widely used by literary observers. The issue of beauty is an aesthetic aspect that is closer to the language of class. The issue of use is related to the meaning of the beauty of the literary language. The language in the anthropology branch has been touched by linguistic anthropology.
Literally, literature is a tool for directing, teaching activity, giving instructions, and good instructions, while culture is the whole of human activity, including knowledge, beliefs, morals, laws, customs, and other habits obtained by learning, including mind and behavior. Thus, literature and culture share the same area, namely human activity, but in different ways; literature through the ability of imagination and creativity (as an emotional ability), while culture is more through the ability of reason as an intellectual ability.
Culture processes nature with the result that it is housing, agriculture research, forest, and so on, while literature processes nature through the ability of writing, constructing a new world as “world in words”, the result is types of literary works such as poetry, novels, drama, stories the people, and so on. Haviland’s footing (1984: 14) about cultural anthropology as part of research specializing in the patterns of community life deserves consideration in literary anthropology.
The idea was actually to state that in certain cultures (culture-bound), there are hidden regions and spaces, namely the aesthetic world called literature. Literature is a cultural heritage that contains patterns of community life. That is why the distance between anthropology, literature and culture should not be debated. Literary anthropology researchers should look for the red threads of literary anthropology research by considering the cultural assets in it.
In principle, the relationship between literature and culture (literary anthropology, sociology of literature, or psychology of literature) was born due to analysis by utilizing structuralism theories that were too engrossed and monotonous with intrinsic elements (themes, plot, characterizations, settings) so that they forgot aspects other aspects. Observers of structuralism are tired and trapped in aspects outside of literature that are no less unique.
The intensity of the relationship between literature and culture is also triggered by the birth of attention to culture as a cultural literary research. The fact shows that there has been a misunderstanding in explaining the relationship as well as the role of literature on cultural research. The error is largely due to differences in listening to the nature of literature as a fact of imagination, fiction, and creativity, including the use of connotative metaphorical language.
Research on fairy tales that is largely fantasy is not in itself will result in imaginary research. A short story with a main character without a head, for example, the results of his analysis will conclude that at a certain time, leaders who are not wise have been born because leaders have no brains. Analysis of the verse and lines of Chairil Anwar’s poem, I am a bitch does not mean that humans are the same as animals as biological analysis, but through understanding human nature at a certain time, in this case the colonial period. At that time, the world people identified themselves as wild animals. The truth of the results of this analysis can certainly be proven after being associated with various other problems (extrinsic).
As a cultural record, literature is worth understanding through literary anthropology. Anthropology of literature will pursue the meaning of a cultural expression in literature. Literature is understood as a cultural portrait born aesthetically. According to Sudikan (2007), at least literary anthropology has two purposes, namely (1) as a comparison with the psychology of literature and sociology of literature and (2) for consideration of cultural wealth as inheritance.

Relationship of Literature with Anthropology

Relationship of Literature with Anthropology
At first, the closeness of anthropology and literature was still in doubt. That closeness shows that there is an important connection in literature and anthropology. People who have studied literature and anthropology can certainly experience this closeness. The relationship of literature and anthropology is indeed very close and difficult to doubt.
Poyatos (in Ghanaian Journals) clearly wrote an article titled Literary Anthropology: A New Interdisciplinary Approach to People, Signs, and Literature. This article tends to emphasize that there are many literary anthropological writings. This term is somewhat different from the term anthropology of literature, meaning literary anthropology. This term refers to the context of literary works that contain elements of anthropology. This context was developed by literary scientists for the development of science.
There are several important reasons that cause the closeness between anthropology and literature, namely (1) they both pay attention to the human aspect with all of its behavior; (2) humans are cultured creatures, possessing a critical sense of creativity to change their lives; (3) anthropology and literature are not allergic to the imaginative phenomena of human life which are often more beautiful than the original color; (4) many oral and literary discourses that attract the interest of anthropologists and literary experts; (5) there are many interdisciplines that surround the field of literature and culture to challenge the emergence of literary anthropology. These five main reasons indicate that customs, traditions, ceremonies, myths, and the like attract a lot of writers’ attention.
Many things are actually reality, but are polished imaginatively. That is, this anthropologist wrote many ethnographies that were similar to literary works. Similarly, when reading ethnic literature, in it many local colors are offered. Many colors of culture that became the area of cultivation of literary creative processes. That is why, if we want to ponder, it seems that anthropology and literature have very thin limits.
In After the Fact (1999), given a critical note by Ignas Kleden, it appears that there is a close relationship of literature between culture, literature and anthropology. Many things he said aesthetically about cities, countries, culture, hegemony, discipline, and modernity were critical, symbolic, and empirical. Even though the basic ethnography is reflective, in fact it is not much different from literary works.
Poetry also often depicts certain ethnography. Poems that describe local struggles, for example titled Balada Sarip Tambakyasa, are aesthetic ethnographic depictions. Poetry also contains context in the form of signs or symbols that are more beautiful than reality. Poetry as an aesthetic work is often derived from a previous hipogram (descendant) text. These offspring are often called breeds (affinity). Literary works often have a family relationship (kinship) with the previous text. The concept of the hypogram is parallel to the context of kinship in anthropological insight.
The context of kinship of the text is in line with the view of anthropological kinship, according to Riffaterre (1978: 23) often through words. The words in the previous poem are often regenerated into the next text.
The relationship of one text to another text is often very close and the meaning is also significant. Declining text can also be colored by the taking of ideas and styles (manner). Poetry that appears later is almost difficult to break away from previous work. This indicates that in certain series will occur a set of texts that have similarities, as in anthropology there are skin colors, faces, and attitudes that are similar to each other.
For this reason, the closeness of literature to anthropology cannot be doubted. That is, the relationship between the two is very close and complementary because literature and anthropology are both efforts to understand humans. Understanding human action through literary lines, according to Todorov’s idea (Anwar, 2010: 269), will trace the facts of fantastic realism. Literature is indeed a world which holds psychological symptoms as a combination of social phenomena. Both of these phenomena are often a touch of anthropology too.
It is indeed difficult to predict whether to distinguish between reflections from realist phenomena and fantastic ones. The world of literature and anthropology often studies both to complete the understanding of human life. Thus, studying literature through the anthropology side will open the eyes of literary experts about symbolic phenomena. Through the path of anthropology, studying literature will be more perfect in diving into human life. Many unique ethnographic sides need to be mastered by a literary expert, especially when dealing with specific phenomena such as ethnicity, violence, feminism, and any locality.

Anthropology of Literature in Research

Anthropology of Literature in Research
Humans are social creatures. Humans have habits that they do in social life, of course. These habits then become a culture practiced by humans in society. Humans as an important element in the creation of a culture. It was influenced by human thoughts that are always developing. Culture in a society is the result of human thought which eventually becomes a habit that is carried on continuously and hereditary. The involvement of a number of sciences, as an interdisciplinary clearly displays a number of theories, methods, techniques, and various other equipment, including objects. Herein lies the difference between the monodisciplinary and interdisciplinary analysis models.
According to Nigerian Journals, as is known in the first model of research as if it already has clear boundaries, both the object and the methodology used to understand it. Monodiscipline directs a researcher not to go beyond predetermined boundaries. In general, limited research is merely intrinsic, autonomous. In everyday life it is referred to as a horseshoe landscape. To determine these boundaries is done by determining the characteristics, paradigms of each science which is referred to as a group of knowledge.
Concept of Anthropology of Literature. The concept of literary anthropology can be traced from the words anthropology and literature. Both of these sciences have their own meanings. Each is actually a humanistic scientific discipline. The material for literary anthropology research is human attitudes and behavior through literary and cultural facts. Moreover, if the reader studies the teachings of literature (niti), it certainly can dive into the culture. Limiting literature is not easy.
The classical view always invites readers to define literature as an expression of ancestral cultural teachings. This classic definition seems to really need to be redone, redefined. Society believes that with the rules or beliefs made, humans can meet their cultural needs. Humans and culture are inseparable. In an area where humans live, there is also a culture in that area. In fact, since humans are born into the world, they cannot help but follow the culture that exists in their environment. Culture is plural, so it does not rule out the possibility that each tribe or race has a culture that is different from one another.
In addition, culture is also open. This means that the culture that has taken root in society will slowly shift until it eventually disappears on its own and changes to a new culture. As the term anthropology of literature is aligned with at the same time conditioned through the stagnation of literary psychology and sociology of literature, two interdisciplines that have been developing for quite a long time in World. In other disciplines also widely known terms of religious sociology, legal sociology, economic sociology, and so on. As far as known the issue of literary anthropology first appeared in the congress ‘Folklore and Literary Anthropology’ (Poyatos, 1988: xi-xv) which took place in Calcutta (1978), initiated by Kahyani University and the Indian Museum. Anthropology is research on humans (Keesing, 1999: 2). What is meant by humans is their attitude and behavior.
According to Haviland (1984: 7) anthropology is research on humanity that seeks to formulate generalizations that are beneficial to humans to guide behavior and to gain a complete understanding of cultural diversity. This opinion is still classified as a classic because initially anthropology often makes generalizations. Anthropology of literature seeks to examine attitudes and behaviors that emerge as culture in literary works. Humans often behave and act with manners. Manners contain etiquette and upload the language that characterizes a civilization.
Literature often articulates etiquette in symbolic cultural interaction with one another. In the context of literary anthropology, literature is a work that reflects a particular culture. In general, anthropology is defined as knowledge or research on human attitudes and behavior. As a science, anthropology is clearly old. Anthropology characterized by researching primitive peoples has now changed. Anthropology also later not only studied humans in real terms, but also read literature. Literature is a work about symbolic human attitudes and behavior. Literature and anthropology are always close. Both can be symbiotic in studying humans through cultural expression. Literature presents a lot of imaginative facts. Anthropology which moves in imaginative facts can be called literary anthropology. This interdiscipline is indeed unknown in the Department of Anthropology, but it colors the research in the Department of Literature. Important concepts of literary anthropology are as stated by Benson (1993: 250) about anthropological poetry, meaning anthropological insights into the poetry inventiveness.
Even though he has not mentioned the term literary anthropology, but the term anthropology of poetry, it is clearly reasonable that science is learned through literary anthropology. Literary anthropology seems to be the development of the anthropology experience initiated by Turner and Bruner (Benson, 1993: 46). This view seems disturbed by the idea of fictional ethnography that developed in the era of postmodernism. The universe of literary and anthropological posmodernism has run far ahead. Literature is not only an artifact that is full of aesthetics, but also contains a culture that contains ethics.