Administration and Management Functions
It is known that basically administration functions to determine organizational goals and formulate general policies, while management functions to carry out activities that need to be carried out in order to achieve goals within the limits of public policy that has been formulated.
In the implementation process, administration and management have certain tasks that must be carried out by themselves. These tasks are commonly referred to / interpreted as administrative and management functions. Until now scholars have not had a unanimous agreement on the administrative and management functions, both in terms of their classification and the terminology used.
According to Prof Sondang in his Journal “Managerial Functions in Swaziland Journals” and “Administrative Philosophy” the administrative and management functions are: 1. Planning (Organizing) 2. Organizing (Organizing) 3. Provision of Motivation 4. Motivating 5. Evaluating (Evaluating). These functions absolutely must be carried out by administration and management. Inability to carry out these functions will result in slow or fast death of the organization.
A. Planning (Planning). Planning can be defined as the whole process of thinking and determining the things that will be done in the future in order to achieve the goals that have been determined. This understanding shows that planning is the first administrative and management function. The reason is that without a plan, there is no basis for carrying out certain activities within the framework of achieving the objectives. Planning becomes the first function because it is the basis and starting point for further implementation activities.
The question becomes: What activities must be carried out in order to achieve predetermined goals? Where are certain activities carried out? This question covers the location of the building of the organization to be erected, spatial structure, place of employment. When certain activities will be carried out. This means that in the plan, a priority system must be drawn, time scheduling and matters related to the time factor. How to carry out activities towards the achievement of objectives? Which is covered by this question concerns the system and work procedures, standards that must be met, how to make and submit reports, how to save documents and others. The question “Siupa” means finding answers in a plan about the description of the division of tasks, authority and responsibility. Philosophically, the most important question in this series of questions is the “why” question. Most important because this question is addressed to the five questions that precede it. If the leadership group can satisfy itself with the answers obtained to the six questions, a good plan will be created.
Organizing is the whole process of grouping people, tools, tasks, responsibilities and authority in such a way as to create an organization that can be mobilized as a unity in order to achieve predetermined goals.
This definition shows that organizing is the first step towards implementing a previously arranged plan. Thus it is also logical if organizing as an administrative and management function is placed as a second function, following the planning function. Also seen in the definition is that the implementation of the organizing function produces an organization that can be mobilized as a rounded entity.
The organization as an administration and management tool seems important when it is remembered that the movement of the organization towards the achievement of objectives is very dependent on the ability of people in the organization to move the organization in the direction that has been set.
C. Motivating. Mobilization is the whole process of giving working motives to subordinates in such a way that they want to work sincerely for the achievement of organizational goals efficiently and economically. “Motivating” implicitly means that the leadership of the organization is in the midst of his subordinates and thus can provide guidance, instruction, advice and correction if necessary. The implementation of the “Motivating” function in an organization can be carried out well by using the following techniques: Explain the organization’s goals to everyone in the organization. Try to make everyone aware, understand and accept these goals well. Try to make everyone understand the organizational structure. Emphasize the importance of collaboration in carrying out the activities required. Treat each subordinate as a human being with full understanding. Give appreciation and praise to competent subordinates and reprimands and guidance to those who are less able to work.
7. Reassure everyone that by working well in the organization the personal goals of these people will be achieved to the maximum extent.
D. Control (Controling)
Supervision is the process of observation rather than the implementation of all activities of the organization to ensure that all work being carried out goes according to a predetermined plan. From this definition it is clear that there is a very close relationship between planning and supervision.
This means that planning and supervision are both halves of the same coin. It is clear that without a supervision plan it is impossible to carry out because there are no guidelines for carrying out that supervision. Conversely, an unsupervised plan will mean serious deviations and / or deviations without any means to prevent it.
Administration and Management Functions