Course: General Agricultural Science
In etymology Agriculture, derived from the word AGRICULTURE, where AGER means land or land and CULTURA means to maintain or work on. According to A.T. Mosher, Agriculture is a type of production activity that is based on the growth process of plants and animals.
Agricultural Science is a science that tries to study and examine human businesses by organizing natural resources, people and the environment more efficiently in an effort to meet their needs. The environment is a complex system based outside of individuals that affects the growth and development of organisms (Ethiopian Journals).
World which is an agrarian country, most of its population who live in rural areas make a living as farmers. In general they have the desire to increase their agricultural production but because of the many problems they face, it is difficult to achieve what they want. The problem of the narrowness of farming land in the World generally strikes among farmers who are the cause of the increasingly widespread poverty in the smallholder group.
World is also the largest rice importer in the world. In 1986 the World was able to become a food self-sufficient country because it had succeeded in finding and using superior seeds. However, World agricultural production from year to year actually decreases due to several factors caused by this decline including the number of land use changes, namely agricultural land that has high productivity potential shifted into the development sector to improve the welfare of life especially with an increase in population from year to year that encourages new agricultural reclamation by utilizing agricultural land that has been reduced, the food self-sufficiency business will decline.
Agricultural development programs, especially in the areas of food security and security that have long been carried out in the World, are still very alarming. The condition of food agriculture in the World, both in terms of quantity and quality, has apparently not been able to meet its own food needs, and lately we tend to be increasingly dependent on imports of food products from abroad. The results obtained from the export performance of agricultural products are also considered not encouraging. The rate of increase in imports of agricultural products tends to be greater than the rate of increase in exports, making it increasingly difficult for the World position in the era of a competitive global market.
The agricultural sector plays an important role in the national economy, its contribution to the country’s foreign exchange income outside of oil and gas and in the people’s economy cannot be ignored. In line with this, the condition of agriculture which has high economic value and has a wide market will receive top priority in its development. Thus, the discovery of food needs, industrial raw materials, increased employment, increased business opportunities and increased exports of agricultural commodities are expected to be guaranteed and sustainable.
Agriculture will become a big force if it is managed in an integrated manner as an agribusiness system. Building a solid agribusiness system and business means building growth as well as equity so that there is a balance between sectors. This also means creating meaningful employment that is outside the agricultural sector, so that agricultural burdens that are too heavy to accommodate the workforce can be overcome.
Agriculture in the narrow sense is as people’s agriculture, which is a family farming business, where the production of main foodstuffs such as rice, crops and horticultural crops. While agriculture in the broadest sense includes smallholder agriculture, plantations, animal husbandry, fisheries and forestry.
The development of primitive societies -> Availability of sufficient food -> Population is very lacking while food is abundant -> Collection, gathering or hunting.
Abundant food sources -> Temporary and diminishing sif
Human population -> Increasingly
Both of the above is a problem, namely how food sources remain available to meet human needs. To overcome these problems began agricultural activities in the form of farming by developing plants and animals.
The entire process above, Agricultural Development which consists of several agricultural systems.
Production Process is a process of processing raw materials into finished materials. Plants are primary agricultural factories and livestock (animals) are secondary agricultural factories. Agriculture arose when humans began to control and regulate the growth of plants and animals.
Farmers are people who control the growth of plants and animals for profit and are directly involved in the process of growing plants and animals. Farmers play the role of Manager (manager) and Cultivator (jurutani), hand, muscle and eye skills.
Farmer Decision Making through 3 stages, namely: Finding data, information for decision making (Intelligence activity) or assessment, Knowing the choice of doing from the various options available (Design activity), Choosing among alternatives (Choice alternatives)
Characteristics of Farmers: Farmers are different from one another, living under their abilities, reluctant to try new methods recommended, respecting the approval of family and surrounding communities, progressive farmers, believing in themselves, not happy being urged and given instructions about what they should do it. Small farmers, are the largest group in the world group of farmers with the following characteristics: Farming in an environment of increasing local population pressure, Having limited resources so as to create a low level of life, Dependent in whole or in part on subsistence production, Lack of health services , education and other services. In the world the limits of small farmers: Farmers whose income is low, which is less than the equivalent of 240 kg of rice per capita per year, farmers who have narrow land, that is <0.25 Ha of paddy fields in Java, or <o, 5 hectares, farmers who lack capital and have limited savings, farmers who have limited knowledge and are less dynamic
Course: General Agricultural Science