Course: General Agricultural Science

Course: General Agricultural Science
In etymology Agriculture, derived from the word AGRICULTURE, where AGER means land or land and CULTURA means to maintain or work on. According to A.T. Mosher, Agriculture is a type of production activity that is based on the growth process of plants and animals.
Agricultural Science is a science that tries to study and examine human businesses by organizing natural resources, people and the environment more efficiently in an effort to meet their needs. The environment is a complex system based outside of individuals that affects the growth and development of organisms (Ethiopian Journals).
World which is an agrarian country, most of its population who live in rural areas make a living as farmers. In general they have the desire to increase their agricultural production but because of the many problems they face, it is difficult to achieve what they want. The problem of the narrowness of farming land in the World generally strikes among farmers who are the cause of the increasingly widespread poverty in the smallholder group.
World is also the largest rice importer in the world. In 1986 the World was able to become a food self-sufficient country because it had succeeded in finding and using superior seeds. However, World agricultural production from year to year actually decreases due to several factors caused by this decline including the number of land use changes, namely agricultural land that has high productivity potential shifted into the development sector to improve the welfare of life especially with an increase in population from year to year that encourages new agricultural reclamation by utilizing agricultural land that has been reduced, the food self-sufficiency business will decline.
Agricultural development programs, especially in the areas of food security and security that have long been carried out in the World, are still very alarming. The condition of food agriculture in the World, both in terms of quantity and quality, has apparently not been able to meet its own food needs, and lately we tend to be increasingly dependent on imports of food products from abroad. The results obtained from the export performance of agricultural products are also considered not encouraging. The rate of increase in imports of agricultural products tends to be greater than the rate of increase in exports, making it increasingly difficult for the World position in the era of a competitive global market.
The agricultural sector plays an important role in the national economy, its contribution to the country’s foreign exchange income outside of oil and gas and in the people’s economy cannot be ignored. In line with this, the condition of agriculture which has high economic value and has a wide market will receive top priority in its development. Thus, the discovery of food needs, industrial raw materials, increased employment, increased business opportunities and increased exports of agricultural commodities are expected to be guaranteed and sustainable.
Agriculture will become a big force if it is managed in an integrated manner as an agribusiness system. Building a solid agribusiness system and business means building growth as well as equity so that there is a balance between sectors. This also means creating meaningful employment that is outside the agricultural sector, so that agricultural burdens that are too heavy to accommodate the workforce can be overcome.
Agriculture in the narrow sense is as people’s agriculture, which is a family farming business, where the production of main foodstuffs such as rice, crops and horticultural crops. While agriculture in the broadest sense includes smallholder agriculture, plantations, animal husbandry, fisheries and forestry.
The development of primitive societies -> Availability of sufficient food -> Population is very lacking while food is abundant -> Collection, gathering or hunting.
Abundant food sources -> Temporary and diminishing sif
Human population -> Increasingly
Both of the above is a problem, namely how food sources remain available to meet human needs. To overcome these problems began agricultural activities in the form of farming by developing plants and animals.
The entire process above, Agricultural Development which consists of several agricultural systems.
Production Process is a process of processing raw materials into finished materials. Plants are primary agricultural factories and livestock (animals) are secondary agricultural factories. Agriculture arose when humans began to control and regulate the growth of plants and animals.
Farmers are people who control the growth of plants and animals for profit and are directly involved in the process of growing plants and animals. Farmers play the role of Manager (manager) and Cultivator (jurutani), hand, muscle and eye skills.
Farmer Decision Making through 3 stages, namely: Finding data, information for decision making (Intelligence activity) or assessment, Knowing the choice of doing from the various options available (Design activity), Choosing among alternatives (Choice alternatives)
Characteristics of Farmers: Farmers are different from one another, living under their abilities, reluctant to try new methods recommended, respecting the approval of family and surrounding communities, progressive farmers, believing in themselves, not happy being urged and given instructions about what they should do it. Small farmers, are the largest group in the world group of farmers with the following characteristics: Farming in an environment of increasing local population pressure, Having limited resources so as to create a low level of life, Dependent in whole or in part on subsistence production, Lack of health services , education and other services. In the world the limits of small farmers: Farmers whose income is low, which is less than the equivalent of 240 kg of rice per capita per year, farmers who have narrow land, that is <0.25 Ha of paddy fields in Java, or <o, 5 hectares, farmers who lack capital and have limited savings, farmers who have limited knowledge and are less dynamic

Between Literature, Anthropology, and Culture

Between Literature, Anthropology, and Culture
Literature is a beautiful cultural copyright. Literature is polished with the language of beauty. Literature is the area of expression, while culture is the content in it. As for anthropology is the science of humanity, the anthropology of literature is the study of literature that is culturally charged. In this connection, the fundamental thinking of Wellek and Warren (in Indonesian Journals) about literature that contains aspects of dulce et utile, beautiful and useful, has been widely used by literary observers. The issue of beauty is an aesthetic aspect that is closer to the language of class. The issue of use is related to the meaning of the beauty of the literary language. The language in the anthropology branch has been touched by linguistic anthropology.
Literally, literature is a tool for directing, teaching activity, giving instructions, and good instructions, while culture is the whole of human activity, including knowledge, beliefs, morals, laws, customs, and other habits obtained by learning, including mind and behavior. Thus, literature and culture share the same area, namely human activity, but in different ways; literature through the ability of imagination and creativity (as an emotional ability), while culture is more through the ability of reason as an intellectual ability.
Culture processes nature with the result that it is housing, agriculture research, forest, and so on, while literature processes nature through the ability of writing, constructing a new world as “world in words”, the result is types of literary works such as poetry, novels, drama, stories the people, and so on. Haviland’s footing (1984: 14) about cultural anthropology as part of research specializing in the patterns of community life deserves consideration in literary anthropology.
The idea was actually to state that in certain cultures (culture-bound), there are hidden regions and spaces, namely the aesthetic world called literature. Literature is a cultural heritage that contains patterns of community life. That is why the distance between anthropology, literature and culture should not be debated. Literary anthropology researchers should look for the red threads of literary anthropology research by considering the cultural assets in it.
In principle, the relationship between literature and culture (literary anthropology, sociology of literature, or psychology of literature) was born due to analysis by utilizing structuralism theories that were too engrossed and monotonous with intrinsic elements (themes, plot, characterizations, settings) so that they forgot aspects other aspects. Observers of structuralism are tired and trapped in aspects outside of literature that are no less unique.
The intensity of the relationship between literature and culture is also triggered by the birth of attention to culture as a cultural literary research. The fact shows that there has been a misunderstanding in explaining the relationship as well as the role of literature on cultural research. The error is largely due to differences in listening to the nature of literature as a fact of imagination, fiction, and creativity, including the use of connotative metaphorical language.
Research on fairy tales that is largely fantasy is not in itself will result in imaginary research. A short story with a main character without a head, for example, the results of his analysis will conclude that at a certain time, leaders who are not wise have been born because leaders have no brains. Analysis of the verse and lines of Chairil Anwar’s poem, I am a bitch does not mean that humans are the same as animals as biological analysis, but through understanding human nature at a certain time, in this case the colonial period. At that time, the world people identified themselves as wild animals. The truth of the results of this analysis can certainly be proven after being associated with various other problems (extrinsic).
As a cultural record, literature is worth understanding through literary anthropology. Anthropology of literature will pursue the meaning of a cultural expression in literature. Literature is understood as a cultural portrait born aesthetically. According to Sudikan (2007), at least literary anthropology has two purposes, namely (1) as a comparison with the psychology of literature and sociology of literature and (2) for consideration of cultural wealth as inheritance.

Relationship of Literature with Anthropology

Relationship of Literature with Anthropology
At first, the closeness of anthropology and literature was still in doubt. That closeness shows that there is an important connection in literature and anthropology. People who have studied literature and anthropology can certainly experience this closeness. The relationship of literature and anthropology is indeed very close and difficult to doubt.
Poyatos (in Ghanaian Journals) clearly wrote an article titled Literary Anthropology: A New Interdisciplinary Approach to People, Signs, and Literature. This article tends to emphasize that there are many literary anthropological writings. This term is somewhat different from the term anthropology of literature, meaning literary anthropology. This term refers to the context of literary works that contain elements of anthropology. This context was developed by literary scientists for the development of science.
There are several important reasons that cause the closeness between anthropology and literature, namely (1) they both pay attention to the human aspect with all of its behavior; (2) humans are cultured creatures, possessing a critical sense of creativity to change their lives; (3) anthropology and literature are not allergic to the imaginative phenomena of human life which are often more beautiful than the original color; (4) many oral and literary discourses that attract the interest of anthropologists and literary experts; (5) there are many interdisciplines that surround the field of literature and culture to challenge the emergence of literary anthropology. These five main reasons indicate that customs, traditions, ceremonies, myths, and the like attract a lot of writers’ attention.
Many things are actually reality, but are polished imaginatively. That is, this anthropologist wrote many ethnographies that were similar to literary works. Similarly, when reading ethnic literature, in it many local colors are offered. Many colors of culture that became the area of cultivation of literary creative processes. That is why, if we want to ponder, it seems that anthropology and literature have very thin limits.
In After the Fact (1999), given a critical note by Ignas Kleden, it appears that there is a close relationship of literature between culture, literature and anthropology. Many things he said aesthetically about cities, countries, culture, hegemony, discipline, and modernity were critical, symbolic, and empirical. Even though the basic ethnography is reflective, in fact it is not much different from literary works.
Poetry also often depicts certain ethnography. Poems that describe local struggles, for example titled Balada Sarip Tambakyasa, are aesthetic ethnographic depictions. Poetry also contains context in the form of signs or symbols that are more beautiful than reality. Poetry as an aesthetic work is often derived from a previous hipogram (descendant) text. These offspring are often called breeds (affinity). Literary works often have a family relationship (kinship) with the previous text. The concept of the hypogram is parallel to the context of kinship in anthropological insight.
The context of kinship of the text is in line with the view of anthropological kinship, according to Riffaterre (1978: 23) often through words. The words in the previous poem are often regenerated into the next text.
The relationship of one text to another text is often very close and the meaning is also significant. Declining text can also be colored by the taking of ideas and styles (manner). Poetry that appears later is almost difficult to break away from previous work. This indicates that in certain series will occur a set of texts that have similarities, as in anthropology there are skin colors, faces, and attitudes that are similar to each other.
For this reason, the closeness of literature to anthropology cannot be doubted. That is, the relationship between the two is very close and complementary because literature and anthropology are both efforts to understand humans. Understanding human action through literary lines, according to Todorov’s idea (Anwar, 2010: 269), will trace the facts of fantastic realism. Literature is indeed a world which holds psychological symptoms as a combination of social phenomena. Both of these phenomena are often a touch of anthropology too.
It is indeed difficult to predict whether to distinguish between reflections from realist phenomena and fantastic ones. The world of literature and anthropology often studies both to complete the understanding of human life. Thus, studying literature through the anthropology side will open the eyes of literary experts about symbolic phenomena. Through the path of anthropology, studying literature will be more perfect in diving into human life. Many unique ethnographic sides need to be mastered by a literary expert, especially when dealing with specific phenomena such as ethnicity, violence, feminism, and any locality.

Anthropology of Literature in Research

Anthropology of Literature in Research
Humans are social creatures. Humans have habits that they do in social life, of course. These habits then become a culture practiced by humans in society. Humans as an important element in the creation of a culture. It was influenced by human thoughts that are always developing. Culture in a society is the result of human thought which eventually becomes a habit that is carried on continuously and hereditary. The involvement of a number of sciences, as an interdisciplinary clearly displays a number of theories, methods, techniques, and various other equipment, including objects. Herein lies the difference between the monodisciplinary and interdisciplinary analysis models.
According to Nigerian Journals, as is known in the first model of research as if it already has clear boundaries, both the object and the methodology used to understand it. Monodiscipline directs a researcher not to go beyond predetermined boundaries. In general, limited research is merely intrinsic, autonomous. In everyday life it is referred to as a horseshoe landscape. To determine these boundaries is done by determining the characteristics, paradigms of each science which is referred to as a group of knowledge.
Concept of Anthropology of Literature. The concept of literary anthropology can be traced from the words anthropology and literature. Both of these sciences have their own meanings. Each is actually a humanistic scientific discipline. The material for literary anthropology research is human attitudes and behavior through literary and cultural facts. Moreover, if the reader studies the teachings of literature (niti), it certainly can dive into the culture. Limiting literature is not easy.
The classical view always invites readers to define literature as an expression of ancestral cultural teachings. This classic definition seems to really need to be redone, redefined. Society believes that with the rules or beliefs made, humans can meet their cultural needs. Humans and culture are inseparable. In an area where humans live, there is also a culture in that area. In fact, since humans are born into the world, they cannot help but follow the culture that exists in their environment. Culture is plural, so it does not rule out the possibility that each tribe or race has a culture that is different from one another.
In addition, culture is also open. This means that the culture that has taken root in society will slowly shift until it eventually disappears on its own and changes to a new culture. As the term anthropology of literature is aligned with at the same time conditioned through the stagnation of literary psychology and sociology of literature, two interdisciplines that have been developing for quite a long time in World. In other disciplines also widely known terms of religious sociology, legal sociology, economic sociology, and so on. As far as known the issue of literary anthropology first appeared in the congress ‘Folklore and Literary Anthropology’ (Poyatos, 1988: xi-xv) which took place in Calcutta (1978), initiated by Kahyani University and the Indian Museum. Anthropology is research on humans (Keesing, 1999: 2). What is meant by humans is their attitude and behavior.
According to Haviland (1984: 7) anthropology is research on humanity that seeks to formulate generalizations that are beneficial to humans to guide behavior and to gain a complete understanding of cultural diversity. This opinion is still classified as a classic because initially anthropology often makes generalizations. Anthropology of literature seeks to examine attitudes and behaviors that emerge as culture in literary works. Humans often behave and act with manners. Manners contain etiquette and upload the language that characterizes a civilization.
Literature often articulates etiquette in symbolic cultural interaction with one another. In the context of literary anthropology, literature is a work that reflects a particular culture. In general, anthropology is defined as knowledge or research on human attitudes and behavior. As a science, anthropology is clearly old. Anthropology characterized by researching primitive peoples has now changed. Anthropology also later not only studied humans in real terms, but also read literature. Literature is a work about symbolic human attitudes and behavior. Literature and anthropology are always close. Both can be symbiotic in studying humans through cultural expression. Literature presents a lot of imaginative facts. Anthropology which moves in imaginative facts can be called literary anthropology. This interdiscipline is indeed unknown in the Department of Anthropology, but it colors the research in the Department of Literature. Important concepts of literary anthropology are as stated by Benson (1993: 250) about anthropological poetry, meaning anthropological insights into the poetry inventiveness.
Even though he has not mentioned the term literary anthropology, but the term anthropology of poetry, it is clearly reasonable that science is learned through literary anthropology. Literary anthropology seems to be the development of the anthropology experience initiated by Turner and Bruner (Benson, 1993: 46). This view seems disturbed by the idea of fictional ethnography that developed in the era of postmodernism. The universe of literary and anthropological posmodernism has run far ahead. Literature is not only an artifact that is full of aesthetics, but also contains a culture that contains ethics.