Problems in Information and Communication Technology
Data is one of the main things studied in the problem of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Data is something that has no meaning for the recipient and still requires a processing. Data can refer to a situation, picture, sound, letters, numbers, mathematics, language or other symbols. Data is the raw material of information.
Thus it can be explained again that the data are facts, estimates, or opinions that do not yet have meaning that can be utilized. There are several methods that can be used for data collection (indicator from Myanmar Journals Research Science, namely:
1. Direct observation. In this method we make direct observations of the object that we are studying. There is also an advantage in this method is the data collected is more complex, thorough, and careful. While this method has drawbacks, namely: The area for obtaining data is not extensive. In collecting data the funds used are expensive. Data collection cannot be done if there are many things that must be investigated.
2. Interview. In this interview method we conduct interviews with the object / person concerned about the things we observe. The advantages of this method are: The data collected is quite thorough. Data collection areas can be extensive. Can be represented by others. Weaknesses in this method are: Costs used are expensive. If represented, they will not be able to know the research objectives.
3. Estimates. In this case the correspondent is asked to provide the necessary information. Therefore, it is possible that the quality of the correspondent of the data can be neglected and that its accuracy is difficult to justify. While this estimation method also has advantages, namely: The cost used is relatively cheap. Data collection areas can be extensive.
4. Question List. In this question list method, we distribute the list of questions or questionnaires to be filled out by respondents, then after completing it is collected again. The advantages in this method are: the cost used is relatively cheap. Data collected faster. While the shortcomings in this method are sometimes the respondent does not return a list of questions.
Data describes a representation of facts that are arranged in a structured manner, in other words that “Generally, data represents a structured codification of single primary entities, as well as of transactions involving two or more primary entities”. (Vercellis, 2009: 6). In addition to the description of a fact, the data can also represent an object as stated by Henry and Munir (2006: 1) that “Data is a value that represents a description of an object or event (event)”
Data processing. According to George Therry, data processing is a series of operations on information planned to achieve the desired goals or results. Handling information or data processing consists of six elements, namely: 1. Sensing / sensing. Conducting observations of objects that we will examine and about what is in our observations. 2. Collection / Complications; Conduct data collection from observations that we have done. In order for our collection to be systematic, we must first classify existing data. 3. Processing / Computing; Carry out the processing of data that we have collected. 4. Presentation; This information is presented to the person who will make the decision. In this presentation the emphasis is on simplicity so as not to confuse the person making the decision. 5. Transmission Delivery; This is done if people need information far away. 6. Information Handling; Information needs to be stored to restore the decision because in returning the decision is not only done in the present, but also past and future.
Information is data that has been processed into a form that is meaningful to the recipient and useful in making decisions both now and in the future. Existing data is packaged and processed so that it becomes useful information. Here are definitions of information based on various sources. Information is a result of processing data into something meaningful for those who receive it, as stated by Vercellis (2009: 7) “Information is the outcome of extraction and processing activities carried out on data, and it appears meaningful for those who receive it in a specific domain. “Besides being the result of data processing, information also describes an event, as stated by Wawan and Munir (2006: 1) that” Information is the result of data processing in a form that describes a real event (event) (fact) with more useful and more meaningful. ”
Thus information can be explained again as data that has been processed into a form that is meaningful to the recipient and useful in making decisions both now and in the future. To produce precise and accurate information, data processing needs to be done first. Information generated by a computer can be viewed through a monitor or printed on paper through a printer. Information in processing this data can be in the form of writing, pictures, graphics, sounds, numbers and symbols.
Good and complete information requirements are the availability of information, language that is easily understood, relevant, contains useful information, information is presented on time or updated, reliability (can be used as a reference), accurate (true or not composed), and consistent (does not change).
Information has several characteristics, namely: 1. True or false. This can relate to reality or not. If the recipient of the wrong information believes, the consequences are the same as true. 2. New. Information obtained is new and fresh for the recipient. Recipients of information often feel bored if the information provided is always the same as the past and there is no change at all. 3. Addition. Information can be a correction of previous false or false information. 4. Affirmation. Information can reinforce existing information. This is still useful because it increases the recipient’s perception of the truth of the information.
Information can be said to be good if it has the following characteristics: 1. Information must be pertinent. Information must be related. Information statements must relate to matters and issues that are important to the recipient of the information (the person who needs the information). 2. Information must be accurate. Information must be free from mistakes and not have a bias or be misleading. The information produced must reflect its purpose. The accuracy of information often depends on the situation. 3. Information must be timely. Information must be available when needed. Information that comes to the recipient must not be too late. Information that is outdated will no longer have value because information is the basis in decision making. 4. Relevant. This information has benefits for the wearer. The relevance of information for each person must be different from one another.
The process of producing information must go through stages carried out by computers as information technology. These stages consist of Input – Process – Output which is called the information processing cycle. That is, if the stage has reached the output then the output can be used as input again. Thus it can be said that the information generated can also be used as data again as input for further processing.
Problems in Information and Communication Technology